scispace - formally typeset
Author

Niki Parmar

Bio: Niki Parmar is a academic researcher from Google. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Transformer (machine learning model) & Machine translation. The author has an hindex of 22, co-authored 39 publication(s) receiving 31763 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Niki Parmar include University of Southern California.

...read more

Papers
More filters

Proceedings Article
Ashish Vaswani1, Noam Shazeer1, Niki Parmar2, Jakob Uszkoreit1  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
12 Jun 2017-
Abstract: The dominant sequence transduction models are based on complex recurrent orconvolutional neural networks in an encoder and decoder configuration. The best performing such models also connect the encoder and decoder through an attentionm echanisms. We propose a novel, simple network architecture based solely onan attention mechanism, dispensing with recurrence and convolutions entirely.Experiments on two machine translation tasks show these models to be superiorin quality while being more parallelizable and requiring significantly less timeto train. Our single model with 165 million parameters, achieves 27.5 BLEU onEnglish-to-German translation, improving over the existing best ensemble result by over 1 BLEU. On English-to-French translation, we outperform the previoussingle state-of-the-art with model by 0.7 BLEU, achieving a BLEU score of 41.1.

...read more

21,996 citations


Posted Content
Ashish Vaswani1, Noam Shazeer1, Niki Parmar2, Jakob Uszkoreit1  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: A new simple network architecture, the Transformer, based solely on attention mechanisms, dispensing with recurrence and convolutions entirely is proposed, which generalizes well to other tasks by applying it successfully to English constituency parsing both with large and limited training data.

...read more

Abstract: The dominant sequence transduction models are based on complex recurrent or convolutional neural networks in an encoder-decoder configuration. The best performing models also connect the encoder and decoder through an attention mechanism. We propose a new simple network architecture, the Transformer, based solely on attention mechanisms, dispensing with recurrence and convolutions entirely. Experiments on two machine translation tasks show these models to be superior in quality while being more parallelizable and requiring significantly less time to train. Our model achieves 28.4 BLEU on the WMT 2014 English-to-German translation task, improving over the existing best results, including ensembles by over 2 BLEU. On the WMT 2014 English-to-French translation task, our model establishes a new single-model state-of-the-art BLEU score of 41.8 after training for 3.5 days on eight GPUs, a small fraction of the training costs of the best models from the literature. We show that the Transformer generalizes well to other tasks by applying it successfully to English constituency parsing both with large and limited training data.

...read more

6,974 citations


Proceedings Article
Ashish Vaswani1, Samy Bengio1, Eugene Brevdo1, François Chollet1  +9 moreInstitutions (1)
16 Mar 2018-
Abstract: Tensor2Tensor is a library for deep learning models that is well-suited for neural machine translation and includes the reference implementation of the state-of-the-art Transformer model.

...read more

340 citations


Posted Content
Anmol Gulati1, James Qin1, Chung-Cheng Chiu1, Niki Parmar1  +7 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: This work proposes the convolution-augmented transformer for speech recognition, named Conformer, which significantly outperforms the previous Transformer and CNN based models achieving state-of-the-art accuracies.

...read more

Abstract: Recently Transformer and Convolution neural network (CNN) based models have shown promising results in Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR), outperforming Recurrent neural networks (RNNs). Transformer models are good at capturing content-based global interactions, while CNNs exploit local features effectively. In this work, we achieve the best of both worlds by studying how to combine convolution neural networks and transformers to model both local and global dependencies of an audio sequence in a parameter-efficient way. To this regard, we propose the convolution-augmented transformer for speech recognition, named Conformer. Conformer significantly outperforms the previous Transformer and CNN based models achieving state-of-the-art accuracies. On the widely used LibriSpeech benchmark, our model achieves WER of 2.1%/4.3% without using a language model and 1.9%/3.9% with an external language model on test/testother. We also observe competitive performance of 2.7%/6.3% with a small model of only 10M parameters.

...read more

264 citations


Posted Content
16 Jun 2017-arXiv: Learning
TL;DR: It is shown that tasks with less data benefit largely from joint training with other tasks, while performance on large tasks degrades only slightly if at all, and that adding a block to the model never hurts performance and in most cases improves it on all tasks.

...read more

Abstract: Deep learning yields great results across many fields, from speech recognition, image classification, to translation. But for each problem, getting a deep model to work well involves research into the architecture and a long period of tuning. We present a single model that yields good results on a number of problems spanning multiple domains. In particular, this single model is trained concurrently on ImageNet, multiple translation tasks, image captioning (COCO dataset), a speech recognition corpus, and an English parsing task. Our model architecture incorporates building blocks from multiple domains. It contains convolutional layers, an attention mechanism, and sparsely-gated layers. Each of these computational blocks is crucial for a subset of the tasks we train on. Interestingly, even if a block is not crucial for a task, we observe that adding it never hurts performance and in most cases improves it on all tasks. We also show that tasks with less data benefit largely from joint training with other tasks, while performance on large tasks degrades only slightly if at all.

...read more

264 citations


Cited by
More filters

Proceedings ArticleDOI
11 Oct 2018-
Abstract: We introduce a new language representation model called BERT, which stands for Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers. Unlike recent language representation models (Peters et al., 2018a; Radford et al., 2018), BERT is designed to pre-train deep bidirectional representations from unlabeled text by jointly conditioning on both left and right context in all layers. As a result, the pre-trained BERT model can be fine-tuned with just one additional output layer to create state-of-the-art models for a wide range of tasks, such as question answering and language inference, without substantial task-specific architecture modifications. BERT is conceptually simple and empirically powerful. It obtains new state-of-the-art results on eleven natural language processing tasks, including pushing the GLUE score to 80.5 (7.7 point absolute improvement), MultiNLI accuracy to 86.7% (4.6% absolute improvement), SQuAD v1.1 question answering Test F1 to 93.2 (1.5 point absolute improvement) and SQuAD v2.0 Test F1 to 83.1 (5.1 point absolute improvement).

...read more

24,672 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jie Hu1, Li Shen2, Samuel Albanie2, Gang Sun1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
18 Jun 2018-
TL;DR: This work proposes a novel architectural unit, which is term the "Squeeze-and-Excitation" (SE) block, that adaptively recalibrates channel-wise feature responses by explicitly modelling interdependencies between channels and finds that SE blocks produce significant performance improvements for existing state-of-the-art deep architectures at minimal additional computational cost.

...read more

Abstract: The central building block of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) is the convolution operator, which enables networks to construct informative features by fusing both spatial and channel-wise information within local receptive fields at each layer. A broad range of prior research has investigated the spatial component of this relationship, seeking to strengthen the representational power of a CNN by enhancing the quality of spatial encodings throughout its feature hierarchy. In this work, we focus instead on the channel relationship and propose a novel architectural unit, which we term the “Squeeze-and-Excitation” (SE) block, that adaptively recalibrates channel-wise feature responses by explicitly modelling interdependencies between channels. We show that these blocks can be stacked together to form SENet architectures that generalise extremely effectively across different datasets. We further demonstrate that SE blocks bring significant improvements in performance for existing state-of-the-art CNNs at slight additional computational cost. Squeeze-and-Excitation Networks formed the foundation of our ILSVRC 2017 classification submission which won first place and reduced the top-5 error to 2.251 percent, surpassing the winning entry of 2016 by a relative improvement of ${\sim }$ ∼ 25 percent. Models and code are available at https://github.com/hujie-frank/SENet .

...read more

7,070 citations


Posted Content
TL;DR: It is found that BERT was significantly undertrained, and can match or exceed the performance of every model published after it, and the best model achieves state-of-the-art results on GLUE, RACE and SQuAD.

...read more

Abstract: Language model pretraining has led to significant performance gains but careful comparison between different approaches is challenging. Training is computationally expensive, often done on private datasets of different sizes, and, as we will show, hyperparameter choices have significant impact on the final results. We present a replication study of BERT pretraining (Devlin et al., 2019) that carefully measures the impact of many key hyperparameters and training data size. We find that BERT was significantly undertrained, and can match or exceed the performance of every model published after it. Our best model achieves state-of-the-art results on GLUE, RACE and SQuAD. These results highlight the importance of previously overlooked design choices, and raise questions about the source of recently reported improvements. We release our models and code.

...read more

6,623 citations


Posted Content
TL;DR: A new language representation model, BERT, designed to pre-train deep bidirectional representations from unlabeled text by jointly conditioning on both left and right context in all layers, which can be fine-tuned with just one additional output layer to create state-of-the-art models for a wide range of tasks.

...read more

Abstract: We introduce a new language representation model called BERT, which stands for Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers. Unlike recent language representation models, BERT is designed to pre-train deep bidirectional representations from unlabeled text by jointly conditioning on both left and right context in all layers. As a result, the pre-trained BERT model can be fine-tuned with just one additional output layer to create state-of-the-art models for a wide range of tasks, such as question answering and language inference, without substantial task-specific architecture modifications. BERT is conceptually simple and empirically powerful. It obtains new state-of-the-art results on eleven natural language processing tasks, including pushing the GLUE score to 80.5% (7.7% point absolute improvement), MultiNLI accuracy to 86.7% (4.6% absolute improvement), SQuAD v1.1 question answering Test F1 to 93.2 (1.5 point absolute improvement) and SQuAD v2.0 Test F1 to 83.1 (5.1 point absolute improvement).

...read more

4,099 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
18 Jun 2018-
Abstract: Both convolutional and recurrent operations are building blocks that process one local neighborhood at a time. In this paper, we present non-local operations as a generic family of building blocks for capturing long-range dependencies. Inspired by the classical non-local means method [4] in computer vision, our non-local operation computes the response at a position as a weighted sum of the features at all positions. This building block can be plugged into many computer vision architectures. On the task of video classification, even without any bells and whistles, our nonlocal models can compete or outperform current competition winners on both Kinetics and Charades datasets. In static image recognition, our non-local models improve object detection/segmentation and pose estimation on the COCO suite of tasks. Code will be made available.

...read more

4,077 citations


Network Information
Related Authors (5)
Noam Shazeer

90 papers, 41K citations

94% related
Llion Jones

26 papers, 31.5K citations

93% related
Łukasz Kaiser

15 papers, 6.4K citations

93% related
Ashish Vaswani

70 papers, 35.5K citations

93% related
Aidan N. Gomez

29 papers, 30.3K citations

92% related
Performance
Metrics

Author's H-index: 22

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
20216
20204
20199
201814
20174
20161

Top Attributes

Show by:

Author's top 5 most impactful journals

arXiv: Computation and Language

5 papers, 7.1K citations

arXiv: Learning

5 papers, 593 citations

Behavior Research Methods

1 papers, 23 citations

Social Science Research Network

1 papers, 1 citations