Other affiliations: National Technical University
Bio: Nikos Gerolymos is an academic researcher from National Technical University of Athens. The author has contributed to research in topics: Caisson & Pile. The author has an hindex of 24, co-authored 57 publications receiving 1689 citations. Previous affiliations of Nikos Gerolymos include National Technical University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, a new seismic design philosophy is illuminated, taking advantage of soil "failure" to protect the superstructure, instead of over-designing the foundation to ensure that the loading stemming from the structural inertia can be "safely" transmitted onto the soil, why not do exactly the opposite by intentionally under designing the foundation, to act as a safety valve?
Abstract: A new seismic design philosophy is illuminated, taking advantage of soil “failure” to protect the superstructure. Instead of over-designing the foundation to ensure that the loading stemming from the structural inertia can be “safely” transmitted onto the soil (as with conventional capacity design), and then reinforce the superstructure to avoid collapse, why not do exactly the opposite by intentionally under-designing the foundation to act as a “safety valve” ? The need for this “reversal” stems from the uncertainty in predicting the actual earthquake motion, and the necessity of developing new more rational and economically efficient earthquake protection solutions. A simple but realistic bridge structure is used as an example to illustrate the effectiveness of the new approach. Two alternatives are compared : one complying with conventional capacity design, with over-designed foundation so that plastic “hinging” develops in the superstructure; the other following the new design philosophy, with under-designed foundation, “inviting” the plastic “hinge” into the soil. Static “pushover” analyses reveal that the ductility capacity of the new design concept is an order of magnitude larger than of the conventional design: the advantage of “utilising” progressive soil failure. The seismic performance of the two alternatives is investigated through nonlinear dynamic time history analyses, using an ensemble of 29 real accelerograms. It is shown that the performance of both alternatives is totally acceptable for moderate intensity earthquakes, not exceeding the design limits. For large intensity earthquakes, exceeding the design limits, the performance of the new design scheme is proven advantageous, not only avoiding collapse but hardly suffering any inelastic structural deformation. It may however experience increased residual settlement and rotation: a price to pay that must be properly assessed in design.
TL;DR: Gerolymos et al. as mentioned in this paper developed a generalized spring multi-Winkler model for the static and dynamic response of rigid caisson foundations of circular, square, or rectangular plan, embedded in a homogeneous elastic.
Abstract: A generalized spring multi-Winkler model is developed for the static and dynamic response of rigid caisson foundations of circular, square, or rectangular plan, embedded in a homogeneous elastic. The model, referred to as a four-spring Winkler model, uses four types of springs to model the interaction between soil and caisson: lateral translational springs distributed along the length of the caisson relating horizontal displacement at a particular depth to lateral soil resistance (resultant of normal and shear tractions on the caisson periphery); similarly distributed rotational springs relating rotation of the caisson to the moment increment developed by the vertical shear tractions on the caisson periphery; and concentrated translational and rotational springs relating, respectively, resultant horizontal shear force with displacement, and overturning moment with rotation, at the base of the caisson. For the dynamic problem each spring is accompanied by an associated dashpot in parallel. Utilising elastodynamic theoretical available in the literature results for rigid embedded foundations, closed-form expressions are derived for the various springs and dashpots of caissons with rectangular and circular plan shape. The response of a caisson to lateral static and dynamic loading at its top, and to kinematically-induced loading arising from vertical seismic shear wave propagation, is then studied parametrically. Comparisons with results from 3D finite element analysis and other available theoretical methods demonstrate the reliability of the model, the need for which arises from its easy extension to multi-layered and nonlinear inelastic soil. Such an extension is presented in the companion papers by the authors [Gerolymos N, Gazetas G. Development of Winkler model for lateral static and dynamic response of caisson foundations with soil and interface nonlinearities. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng. Submitted companion paper; Gerolymos N, Gazetas G. Static and dynamic response of massive caisson foundations with soil and interface nonlinearities—validation and results. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng. Submitted companion paper.]. q 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
TL;DR: Gerolymos et al. as mentioned in this paper developed a nonlinear Winkler-spring method for the static, cyclic, and dynamic response of caisson foundations in linear soil, where the nonlinear soil reactions along the circumference and on the base of the caisson are modeled realistically by using suitable couple translational and rotational nonlinear interaction springs and dashpots.
Abstract: As an extension of the elastic multi-spring model developed by the authors in a companion paper [Gerolymos N, Gazetas G. Winkler model for lateral response of rigid caisson foundations in linear soil. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng; 2005 (submitted companion paper).], this paper develops a nonlinear Winkler-spring method for the static, cyclic, and dynamic response of caisson foundations. The nonlinear soil reactions along the circumference and on the base of the caisson are modeled realistically by using suitable couple translational and rotational nonlinear interaction springs and dashpots, which can realistically (even if approximately) model such effects as separation and slippage at the caisson–soil interface, uplift of the caisson base, radiation damping, stiffness and strength degradation with large number of cycles. The method is implemented in a new finite difference time-domain code, NL-CAISSON. An efficient numerical methodology is also developed for calibrating the model parameters using a variety of experimental and analytical data. The necessity for the proposed model arises from the difficulty to predict the large-amplitude dynamic response of caissons up to failure, statically or dynamically. In a subsequent companion paper [Gerolymos N, Gazetas G. Static and dynamic response of massive caisson foundations with soil and interface nonlinearities—validation and results. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng; 2005 (submitted companion paper).], the model is validated against in situ medium-scale static load tests and results of 3D finite element analysis. It is then used to analyse the dynamic response of a laterally loaded caisson considering soil and interface nonlinearities. q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
TL;DR: In this article, a multisegment tunnel is modeled as a beam connected to the ground through properly calibrated interaction springs, dashpots, and sliders, and free-field acceleration time histories are computed from these records through one-dimensional wave propagation equivalent-linear and nonlinear analyses of parametrically different soil profiles along the tunnel.
Abstract: Critical for the seismic safety of immersed tunnels is the magnitude of deformations developing in the segment joints, as a result of the combined longitudinal and lateral vibrations. Analysis and design against such vibrations is the main focus of this paper, with reference to a proposed 70 m-deep immersed tunnel in a highly seismic region, in Greece. The multisegment tunnel is modeled as a beam connected to the ground through properly calibrated interaction springs, dashpots, and sliders. Actual records of significant directivity-affected ground motions, downscaled to 0.24 g peak acceleration, form the basis of the basement excitation. Free-field acceleration time histories are computed from these records through one-dimensional wave propagation equivalent-linear and nonlinear analyses of parametrically different soil profiles along the tunnel; they are then applied as excitation at the support of the springs, with a suitable time lag to conservatively approximate wave passage effects. The joints between the tunnel segments are modeled realistically with special nonlinear hyperelastic elements, while their longitudinal prestressing due to the great (7 bar) water pressure is also considered. Nonlinear dynamic transient analysis of the tunnel is performed without ignoring the inertia of the thick-walled tunnel, and the influence of segment length and joint properties is investigated parametrically. It is shown that despite ground excitation with acceleration levels exceeding 0.50 g and velocity of about 80 cm/s at the base of the tunnel, net tension and excessive compression between the segments can be avoided with a suitable design of joint gaskets and a selection of relatively small segment lengths. Although this research was prompted by the needs of a specific project, the dynamic analysis methods, the proposed design concepts, and many of the conclusions of the study are sufficiently general and may apply in other immersed tunneling projects.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explored the magnitude and distribution of dynamic earth pressures on several types of flexible retaining systems: L-shaped reinforced-concrete walls, piled walls with horizontal or with strongly inclined anchors, and reinforced-soil walls.
Abstract: Using finite-element modelling, this paper explores the magnitude and distribution of dynamic earth pressures on several types of flexible retaining systems: L-shaped reinforced-concrete walls, piled walls with horizontal or with strongly inclined anchors, and reinforced-soil walls. The utilized base excitation is typical of earthquake motions of either high or moderately low dominant frequencies having a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.40 g and relatively short duration. Linear as well as non-linear (Mohr ‐ Coulomb) soil behaviour is investigated, under dry conditions. The results show that, as the degree of realism in the analysis increases, we can explain the frequently observed satisfactory performance of such retaining systems during strong seismic shaking. q 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
TL;DR: A review of the past, recent developments and implementations of the Bouc-Wen model which is used extensively in modeling the hysteresis phenomenon in the dynamically excited nonlinear structures can be found in this paper.
Abstract: Structural systems often show nonlinear behavior under severe excitations generated by natural hazards. In that condition, the restoring force becomes highly nonlinear showing significant hysteresis. The hereditary nature of this nonlinear restoring force indicates that the force cannot be described as a function of the instantaneous displacement and velocity. Accordingly, many hysteretic restoring force models were developed to include the time dependent nature using a set of differential equations. This survey contains a review of the past, recent developments and implementations of the Bouc-Wen model which is used extensively in modeling the hysteresis phenomenon in the dynamically excited nonlinear structures.
Chengdu University of Technology1, Charles University in Prague2, University of Potsdam3, University of Southern California4, University of Twente5, Cardiff University6, United States Geological Survey7, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology8, University of Waterloo9, China Earthquake Administration10
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyze how earthquakes trigger landslides and highlight research gaps, and suggest pathways toward a more complete understanding of the seismic effects on the Earth's surface, highlighting research gaps.
Abstract: Large earthquakes initiate chains of surface processes that last much longer than the brief moments of strong shaking. Most moderate‐ and large‐magnitude earthquakes trigger landslides, ranging from small failures in the soil cover to massive, devastating rock avalanches. Some landslides dam rivers and impound lakes, which can collapse days to centuries later, and flood mountain valleys for hundreds of kilometers downstream. Landslide deposits on slopes can remobilize during heavy rainfall and evolve into debris flows. Cracks and fractures can form and widen on mountain crests and flanks, promoting increased frequency of landslides that lasts for decades. More gradual impacts involve the flushing of excess debris downstream by rivers, which can generate bank erosion and floodplain accretion as well as channel avulsions that affect flooding frequency, settlements, ecosystems, and infrastructure. Ultimately, earthquake sequences and their geomorphic consequences alter mountain landscapes over both human and geologic time scales. Two recent events have attracted intense research into earthquake‐induced landslides and their consequences: the magnitude M 7.6 Chi‐Chi, Taiwan earthquake of 1999, and the M 7.9 Wenchuan, China earthquake of 2008. Using data and insights from these and several other earthquakes, we analyze how such events initiate processes that change mountain landscapes, highlight research gaps, and suggest pathways toward a more complete understanding of the seismic effects on the Earth's surface.
13 Aug 2007
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a formal analysis of the BIBO stability of the Bouc-Wen model in the limit case n = 1 2.5.1 The limit case (r) = 0 2.3.1 Numerical simulations 5.2.
Abstract: Preface. List of Figures. List of Tables. 1. Introduction 1.1 Objective and contents of the book 1.2 The Bouc-Wen model: origin and literature review 2. Physical consistency of the Bouc-Wen model 2.1 Introduction 2.2 BIBO stability of the Bouc-Wen model 2.2.1 The model 2.2.2 Problem statement 2.2.3 Classi ~ cation of the BIBO stable Bouc-Wen models 2.2.4 Practical remarks 2.3 Free motion of a hysteretic structural system 2.3.1 Problem statement 2.3.2 Asymptotic trajectories 2.3.3 Practical remarks 2.4 Passivity of the Bouc-Wen model 2.5 Limit cases 2.5.1 The limit case n = 1 2.5.2 The limit case (r) = 1 2.5.3 The limit case (r) = 0 2.5.4 The limit case ~ + - = 0 2.6 Conclusion 3 Forced limit cycle characterization of the Bouc-Wen model 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Problem statement 3.2.1 The class of inputs 3.2.2 Problem statement 3.3 The normalized Bouc-Wen model 3.4 Instrumental functions 3.5 Characterization of the asymptotic behavior of the hysteretic output 3.5.1 Technical Lemmas 3.5.2 Analytic description of the forced limit cycles for the Bouc-Wen model 3.6 Simulation example 3.7 Conclusion 4 Variation of the hysteresis loop with the Bouc-Wen model parameters 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Background results and methodology of the analysis 4.2.1 Background results 4.2.2 Methodology of the analysis 4.3 Maximal value of the hysteretic output 4.3.1 Variation with respect to 4.3.2 Variation with respect to 4.3.3 Variation with respect to n 4.3.4 Summary of the obtained results 4.4 Variation of the zero of the hysteretic output 4.4.1 Variation with respect to 4.4.2 Variation with respect to 4.4.3 Variation with respect to n 4.4.4 Summary of the obtained results 4.5 Variation of the hysteretic output with the Bouc-Wen model parameters 4.5.1 Variation with respect to 4.5.2 Variation with respect to 4.5.3 Variation with respect to n 4.5.4 Summary of the obtained results 4.6 The four regions of the Bouc-Wen model 4.6.1 The linear region Rl 4.6.2 The plastic region Rp 4.6.3 The transition regions Rt and Rs 4.7 Interpretation of the normalized Bouc-Wen model parameters 4.7.1 The parameters and 4.7.2 The parameter 4.7.3 The parameter n 4.8 Conclusion 5 Robust identification of the Bouc-Wen model parameters 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Parameter identi ~ cation for the Bouc-Wen model 5.2.1 Class of inputs 5.2.2 Identi ~ cation methodology 5.2.3 Robustness of the identi ~ cation method 5.2.4 Numerical simulation example 5.3 Modeling and identi ~ cation of a magnetorheological damper 5.3.1 Some insights into the viscous + Bouc-Wen model for shear mode MR dampers 5.3.2 Alternatives to the viscous + Bouc-Wen model for shear mode MR dampers 5.4 Identi ~ cation methodology for the viscous + Dahl model . . 5.4.1 Numerical simulations 5.5 Conclusion 6 Control of a system with a Bouc-Wen hysteresis 6.1 Introduction and problem statement 6.2 Control design and stability analysis 6.3 Numerical simulation 6.4 Conclusion A Mathematical background A.1 Existence and uniqueness of solutions A.2 Concepts of stability A.3 Passivity and absolute stability A.3.1 Passivity in mechanical systems A.3.2 Positive realness A.3.3 Sector functions A.3.4 Absolute stability A.4 Input-output properties References. Index.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide state-of-the-art information on the following aspects of seismic analysis and design of spread footings supporting bridge piers: (1) obtaining the dynamic stiffness (springs and dashpots) of the foundation; (2) computing the kinematic response; determining the conditions under which foundation compliance must be incorporated in dynamic structural analysis; assessing the importance of properly modeling the effect of embedment; elucidating the conditions in which the effects of radiation damping is significant.
Abstract: The paper provides state-of-the-art information on the following aspects of seismic analysis and design of spread footings supporting bridge piers: (1) obtaining the dynamic stiffness (“springs” and “dashpots”) of the foundation; (2) computing the kinematic response; (3) determining the conditions under which foundation–soil compliance must be incorporated in dynamic structural analysis; (4) assessing the importance of properly modeling the effect of embedment; (5) elucidating the conditions under which the effect of radiation damping is significant; (6) comparing the relative importance between kinematic and inertial response. The paper compiles an extensive set of graphs and tables for stiffness and damping in all modes of vibration (swaying, rocking, torsion), for a variety of soil conditions and foundation geometries. Simplified expressions for computing kinematic response (both in translation and rotation) are provided. Special issues such as presence of rock at shallow depths, the contribution of foundation sidewalls, soil inhomogeneity and inelasticity, are also discussed. The paper concludes with parametric studies on the seismic response of bridge bents on embedded footings in layered soil. Results are presented (in frequency and time domains) for accelerations and displacements of bridge and footing, while potential errors from some frequently employed simplifications are illustrated.