Bio: Ning-Leh Chang is an academic researcher from University of Texas at Austin. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Crystal engineering & Molecular recognition. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 4 publication(s) receiving 7527 citation(s).
Topics: Crystal engineering, Molecular recognition, Molecule, Centrosymmetry, Supramolecular chemistry
Abstract: Whereas much of organic chemistry has classically dealt with the preparation and study of the properties of individual molecules, an increasingly significant portion of the activity in chemical research involves understanding and utilizing the nature of the interactions between molecules. Two representative areas of this evolution are supramolecular chemistry and molecular recognition. The interactions between molecules are governed by intermolecular forces whose energetic and geometric properties are much less well understood than those of classical chemical bonds between atoms. Among the strongest of these interactions, however, are hydrogen bonds, whose directional properties are better understood on the local level (that is, for a single hydrogen bond) than many other types of non-bonded interactions. Nevertheless, the means by which to characterize, understand, and predict the consequences of many hydrogen bonds among molecules, and the resulting formation of molecular aggregates (on the microscopic scale) or crystals (on the macroscopic scale) has remained largely enigmatic. One of the most promising systematic approaches to resolving this enigma was initially developed by the late M. C. Etter, who applied graph theory to recognize, and then utilize, patterns of hydrogen bonding for the understanding and design of molecular crystals. In working with Etter's original ideas the power and potential utility of this approach on one hand, and on the other, the need to develop and extend the initial Etter formalism was generally recognized. It with that latter purpose that we originally undertook the present review.
Abstract: Wahrend sich die klassische Organische Chemie bisher weitgehend mit der Synthese individueller Molekule und der Untersuchung ihrer Eigenschaften beschaftigte, gewinnen nunmehr zunehmend Forschungsaktivitaten an Bedeutung, die sich mit dem Verstandnis und dem Ausnutzen von Wechselwirkungen zwischen Molekulen befassen. Zwei fur diese Entwicklung reprasentative Gebiete sind die supramolekulare Chemie und die molekulare Erkennung. Die Wechselwirkungen zwischen Molekulen werden durch intermolekulare Krafte bestimmt, deren energetische und geometrische Eigenschaften viel weniger gut verstanden sind als die von klassischen chemischen Bindungen zwischen Atomen. Zu den starksten dieser Wechselwirkungen gehoren die H-Brucken, deren gerichtete Eigenschaften auf lokalem Niveau (d. h. fur nur eine H-Brucke) besser als die vieler anderer Typen nichtbindender Wechselwirkungen verstanden werden. Trotzdem ist noch weithin ungeklart, wie man vorgehen muste, um die Konsequenzen der Bildung vieler H-Brucken zwischen Molekulen und den daraus folgenden Aufbau von molekularen Aggregaten (im mikroskopischen Bereich) oder von Kristallen (im makroskopischen Bereich) zu charakterisieren, zu verstehen und vorherzusagen. Einer der vielversprechendsten systematischen Ansatze, um dieses Problem zu losen, wurde ursprunglich von der inzwischen verstorbenen M. C. Etter entwickelt. In den letzten Jahren wurden ihre Ideen von anderen ubernommen und angewendet. Diese Arbeiten bewiesen einerseits die Bedeutung und die potentielle Nutzlichkeit der ursprunglichen Ideen und Ansatze, zeigten andererseits aber auch die Notwendigkeit auf, Etters Formalismus zu erweitern. Gerade letzteres war der Ausloser fur die hier vorgestellten Arbeiten.
••12 Mar 2007
Abstract: The pseudosymmetric chiral sulphoxide 1 was designed with two segments of nearly identical shape but with significantly different electron-donor/acceptor properties. Based on the known high statistical preference for organics to pack in one of the centrosymmetric space groups, formation of molecular crystals of enantiomerically pure 1 was predicted to occur with pseudocentrosymmetry with 1 also playing the role of its enantiomer and packing as would the racemate. Such a packing motif would lack true centrosymmetry, resulting in a polar axis for the crystal and net additivity of the vectors from nitrogen to sulphur (the direction of polarizability for the molecules). Enantiomeric sulphoxide 1 does from molecular crystals with false centrosymmetry, mimicking P21/c, and with a substantial net directionality of polarizability vectors. In contrast, enantiomeric sulphoxides 3 and 4 form molecular crystals where the vectors from nitrogen to sulphur in neighbouring molecules are essentially opposed.
Abstract: The program Mercury, developed by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre, is designed primarily as a crystal structure visualization tool. A new module of functionality has been produced, called the Materials Module, which allows highly customizable searching of structural databases for intermolecular interaction motifs and packing patterns. This new module also includes the ability to perform packing similarity calculations between structures containing the same compound. In addition to the Materials Module, a range of further enhancements to Mercury has been added in this latest release, including void visualization and links to ConQuest, Mogul and IsoStar.
Thomas Steiner1•Institutions (1)
TL;DR: The hydrogen bond is the most important of all directional intermolecular interactions, operative in determining molecular conformation, molecular aggregation, and the function of a vast number of chemical systems ranging from inorganic to biological.
Abstract: The hydrogen bond is the most important of all directional intermolecular interactions. It is operative in determining molecular conformation, molecular aggregation, and the function of a vast number of chemical systems ranging from inorganic to biological. Research into hydrogen bonds experienced a stagnant period in the 1980s, but re-opened around 1990, and has been in rapid development since then. In terms of modern concepts, the hydrogen bond is understood as a very broad phenomenon, and it is accepted that there are open borders to other effects. There are dozens of different types of X-H.A hydrogen bonds that occur commonly in the condensed phases, and in addition there are innumerable less common ones. Dissociation energies span more than two orders of magnitude (about 0.2-40 kcal mol(-1)). Within this range, the nature of the interaction is not constant, but its electrostatic, covalent, and dispersion contributions vary in their relative weights. The hydrogen bond has broad transition regions that merge continuously with the covalent bond, the van der Waals interaction, the ionic interaction, and also the cation-pi interaction. All hydrogen bonds can be considered as incipient proton transfer reactions, and for strong hydrogen bonds, this reaction can be in a very advanced state. In this review, a coherent survey is given on all these matters.
TL;DR: A new way of exploring packing modes and intermolecular interactions in molecular crystals is described, using Hirshfeld surfaces to partition crystal space, using identifiable patterns of interaction between small molecules to rationalize the often complex mix of interactions displayed by large molecules.
Abstract: A new way of exploring packing modes and intermolecular interactions in molecular crystals is described, using Hirshfeld surfaces to partition crystal space. These molecular Hirshfeld surfaces, so named because they derive from Hirshfeld's stockholder partitioning, divide the crystal into regions where the electron distribution of a sum of spherical atoms for the molecule (the promolecule) dominates the corresponding sum over the crystal (the procrystal). These surfaces reflect intermolecular interactions in a novel visual manner, offering a previously unseen picture of molecular shape in a crystalline environment. Surface features characteristic of different types of intermolecular interactions can be identified, and such features can be revealed by colour coding distances from the surface to the nearest atom exterior or interior to the surface, or by functions of the principal surface curvatures. These simple devices provide a striking and immediate picture of the types of interactions present, and even reflect their relative strengths from molecule to molecule. A complementary two-dimensional mapping is also presented, which summarizes quantitatively the types of intermolecular contacts experienced by molecules in the bulk and presents this information in a convenient colour plot. This paper describes the use of these tools in the compilation of a pictorial glossary of intermolecular interactions, using identifiable patterns of interaction between small molecules to rationalize the often complex mix of interactions displayed by large molecules.
Mino R. Caira1•Institutions (1)
Abstract: Crystal polymorphism is encountered in all areas of research involving solid substances. Its occurrence introduces complications during manufacturing processes and adds another dimension to the complexity of designing materials with specific properties. Research on polymorphism is fraught with unique difficulties due to the subtlety of polymorphic transformations and the inadvertent formation of pseudopolymorphs. In this report, a summary of thermodynamic, kinetic and structural considerations of polymorphism is presented. A wide variety of techniques appropriate to the study of organic crystalline polymorphism and pseu-dopolymorphism is then surveyed, ranging from simple crystal density measurement to observation of polymorphic transformations using variable-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction methods. Application of newer methodology described in this report is yielding fresh insights into the nature of the crystallization process, holding promise for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of polymorphism and its practical control.
Related Authors (1)
Author's H-index: 2