Niraj K. Jha
Other affiliations: Columbia University, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, University of Michigan ...read more
Bio: Niraj K. Jha is an academic researcher from Princeton University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Medicine & CMOS. The author has an hindex of 69, co-authored 534 publications receiving 19823 citations. Previous affiliations of Niraj K. Jha include Columbia University & Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.
Papers published on a yearly basis
•01 Jan 2010
TL;DR: Theories are made easier to understand with 200 illustrative examples, and students can test their understanding with over 350 end-of-chapter review questions.
Abstract: Understand the structure, behavior, and limitations of logic machines with this thoroughly updated third edition. Many new topics are included, such as CMOS gates, logic synthesis, logic design for emerging nanotechnologies, digital system testing, and asynchronous circuit design, to bring students up-to-speed with modern developments. The intuitive examples and minimal formalism of the previous edition are retained, giving students a text that is logical and easy to follow, yet rigorous. Kohavi and Jha begin with the basics, and then cover combinational logic design and testing, before moving on to more advanced topics in finite-state machine design and testing. Theory is made easier to understand with 200 illustrative examples, and students can test their understanding with over 350 end-of-chapter review questions.
••26 Apr 2009
TL;DR: In this article, a detailed cycle-accurate interconnection network model (GARNET) is proposed to simulate a CMP architecture with virtual channel (VC) flow control.
Abstract: Until very recently, microprocessor designs were computation-centric. On-chip communication was frequently ignored. This was because of fast, single-cycle on-chip communication. The interconnect power was also insignificant compared to the transistor power. With uniprocessor designs providing diminishing returns and the advent of chip multiprocessors (CMPs) in mainstream systems, the on-chip network that connects different processing cores has become a critical part of the design. Transistor miniaturization has led to high global wire delay, and interconnect power comparable to transistor power. CMP design proposals can no longer ignore the interaction between the memory hierarchy and the interconnection network that connects various elements. This necessitates a detailed and accurate interconnection network model within a full-system evaluation framework. Ignoring the interconnect details might lead to inaccurate results when simulating a CMP architecture. It also becomes important to analyze the impact of interconnection network optimization techniques on full system behavior. In this light, we developed a detailed cycle-accurate interconnection network model (GARNET), inside the GEMS full-system simulation framework. GARNET models a classic five-stage pipelined router with virtual channel (VC) flow control. Microarchitectural details, such as flit-level input buffers, routing logic, allocators and the crossbar switch, are modeled. GARNET, along with GEMS, provides a detailed and accurate memory system timing model. To demonstrate the importance and potential impact of GARNET, we evaluate a shared and private L2 CMP with a realistic state-of-the-art interconnection network against the original GEMS simple network. The objective of the evaluation was to figure out which configuration is better for a particular workload. We show that not modeling the interconnect in detail might lead to an incorrect outcome. We also evaluate Express Virtual Channels (EVCs), an on-chip network flow control proposal, in a full-system fashion. We show that in improving on-chip network latency-throughput, EVCs do lead to better overall system runtime, however, the impact varies widely across applications.
TL;DR: This survey attempts to provide a comprehensive list of vulnerabilities and countermeasures against them on the edge-side layer of IoT, which consists of three levels: (i) edge nodes, (ii) communication, and (iii) edge computing.
Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT), also referred to as the Internet of Objects, is envisioned as a transformative approach for providing numerous services. Compact smart devices constitute an essential part of IoT. They range widely in use, size, energy capacity, and computation power. However, the integration of these smart things into the standard Internet introduces several security challenges because the majority of Internet technologies and communication protocols were not designed to support IoT. Moreover, commercialization of IoT has led to public security concerns, including personal privacy issues, threat of cyber attacks, and organized crime. In order to provide a guideline for those who want to investigate IoT security and contribute to its improvement, this survey attempts to provide a comprehensive list of vulnerabilities and countermeasures against them on the edge-side layer of IoT, which consists of three levels: (i) edge nodes, (ii) communication, and (iii) edge computing. To achieve this goal, we first briefly describe three widely-known IoT reference models and define security in the context of IoT. Second, we discuss the possible applications of IoT and potential motivations of the attackers who target this new paradigm. Third, we discuss different attacks and threats. Fourth, we describe possible countermeasures against these attacks. Finally, we introduce two emerging security challenges not yet explained in detail in previous literature.
••08 Feb 2003
TL;DR: This paper proposes a history-based DVS policy that judiciously adjusts link frequencies and voltages based on past utilization that realizes up to 6.3/spl times/ power savings and is accompanied by a moderate impact on performance.
Abstract: Originally developed to connect processors and memories in multicomputers, prior research and design of interconnection networks have focused largely on performance. As these networks get deployed in a wide range of new applications, where power is becoming a key design constraint, we need to seriously consider power efficiency in designing interconnection networks. As the demand for network bandwidth increases, communication links, already a significant consumer of power now, will take up an ever larger portion of total system power budget. In this paper we motivate the use of dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) for links, where the frequency and voltage of links are dynamically adjusted to minimize power consumption. We propose a history-based DVS policy that judiciously adjusts link frequencies and voltages based on past utilization. Our approach realizes up to 6.3/spl times/ power savings (4.6/spl times/ on average). This is accompanied by a moderate impact on performance (15.2% increase in average latency before network saturation and 2.5% reduction in throughput.) To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that targets dynamic power optimization of interconnection networks.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a comprehensive analysis of the energy requirements of a wide range of cryptographic algorithms that form the building blocks of security mechanisms such as security protocols, and investigate the impact of various parameters at protocol level (such as cipher suites, authentication mechanisms, and transaction sizes, etc.) and the cryptographic algorithm level (cipher modes, strength) on the overall energy consumption for secure data transactions.
Abstract: Security is becoming an everyday concern for a wide range of electronic systems that manipulate, communicate, and store sensitive data. An important and emerging category of such electronic systems are battery-powered mobile appliances, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and cell phones, which are severely constrained in the resources they possess, namely, processor, battery, and memory. This work focuses on one important constraint of such devices-battery life-and examines how it is impacted by the use of various security mechanisms. In this paper, we first present a comprehensive analysis of the energy requirements of a wide range of cryptographic algorithms that form the building blocks of security mechanisms such as security protocols. We then study the energy consumption requirements of the most popular transport-layer security protocol: Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). We investigate the impact of various parameters at the protocol level (such as cipher suites, authentication mechanisms, and transaction sizes, etc.) and the cryptographic algorithm level (cipher modes, strength) on the overall energy consumption for secure data transactions. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of the energy requirements of SSL. For our studies, we have developed a measurement-based experimental testbed that consists of an iPAQ PDA connected to a wireless local area network (LAN) and running Linux, a PC-based data acquisition system for real-time current measurement, the OpenSSL implementation of the SSL protocol, and parameterizable SSL client and server test programs. Based on our results, we also discuss various opportunities for realizing energy-efficient implementations of security protocols. We believe such investigations to be an important first step toward addressing the challenges of energy-efficient security for battery-constrained systems.
TL;DR: Much of what constitutes the core of scientific knowledge may be regarded as a reservoir of concepts and techniques which can be drawn upon to construct mathematical models of various types of systems and thereby yield quantitative information concerning their behavior.
30 Jun 2002
TL;DR: This paper presents a meta-anatomy of the multi-Criteria Decision Making process, which aims to provide a scaffolding for the future development of multi-criteria decision-making systems.
Abstract: List of Figures. List of Tables. Preface. Foreword. 1. Basic Concepts. 2. Evolutionary Algorithm MOP Approaches. 3. MOEA Test Suites. 4. MOEA Testing and Analysis. 5. MOEA Theory and Issues. 3. MOEA Theoretical Issues. 6. Applications. 7. MOEA Parallelization. 8. Multi-Criteria Decision Making. 9. Special Topics. 10. Epilog. Appendix A: MOEA Classification and Technique Analysis. Appendix B: MOPs in the Literature. Appendix C: Ptrue & PFtrue for Selected Numeric MOPs. Appendix D: Ptrue & PFtrue for Side-Constrained MOPs. Appendix E: MOEA Software Availability. Appendix F: MOEA-Related Information. Index. References.
TL;DR: The high level of collaboration on the gem5 project, combined with the previous success of the component parts and a liberal BSD-like license, make gem5 a valuable full-system simulation tool.
Abstract: The gem5 simulation infrastructure is the merger of the best aspects of the M5  and GEMS  simulators. M5 provides a highly configurable simulation framework, multiple ISAs, and diverse CPU models. GEMS complements these features with a detailed and exible memory system, including support for multiple cache coherence protocols and interconnect models. Currently, gem5 supports most commercial ISAs (ARM, ALPHA, MIPS, Power, SPARC, and x86), including booting Linux on three of them (ARM, ALPHA, and x86).The project is the result of the combined efforts of many academic and industrial institutions, including AMD, ARM, HP, MIPS, Princeton, MIT, and the Universities of Michigan, Texas, and Wisconsin. Over the past ten years, M5 and GEMS have been used in hundreds of publications and have been downloaded tens of thousands of times. The high level of collaboration on the gem5 project, combined with the previous success of the component parts and a liberal BSD-like license, make gem5 a valuable full-system simulation tool.
TL;DR: A simple, efficient algorithm to locate all occurrences of any of a finite number of keywords in a string of text that has been used to improve the speed of a library bibliographic search program by a factor of 5 to 10.
Abstract: This paper describes a simple, efficient algorithm to locate all occurrences of any of a finite number of keywords in a string of text. The algorithm consists of constructing a finite state pattern matching machine from the keywords and then using the pattern matching machine to process the text string in a single pass. Construction of the pattern matching machine takes time proportional to the sum of the lengths of the keywords. The number of state transitions made by the pattern matching machine in processing the text string is independent of the number of keywords. The algorithm has been used to improve the speed of a library bibliographic search program by a factor of 5 to 10.