Author

# Nitish Srivastava

Other affiliations: Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Cornell University, University of Toronto

Bio: Nitish Srivastava is an academic researcher from Apple Inc.. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Generative model & Boltzmann machine. The author has an hindex of 22, co-authored 41 publication(s) receiving 40184 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Nitish Srivastava include Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur & Cornell University.

##### Papers

More filters

•

TL;DR: It is shown that dropout improves the performance of neural networks on supervised learning tasks in vision, speech recognition, document classification and computational biology, obtaining state-of-the-art results on many benchmark data sets.

Abstract: Deep neural nets with a large number of parameters are very powerful machine learning systems. However, overfitting is a serious problem in such networks. Large networks are also slow to use, making it difficult to deal with overfitting by combining the predictions of many different large neural nets at test time. Dropout is a technique for addressing this problem. The key idea is to randomly drop units (along with their connections) from the neural network during training. This prevents units from co-adapting too much. During training, dropout samples from an exponential number of different "thinned" networks. At test time, it is easy to approximate the effect of averaging the predictions of all these thinned networks by simply using a single unthinned network that has smaller weights. This significantly reduces overfitting and gives major improvements over other regularization methods. We show that dropout improves the performance of neural networks on supervised learning tasks in vision, speech recognition, document classification and computational biology, obtaining state-of-the-art results on many benchmark data sets.

27,534 citations

•

TL;DR: The authors randomly omits half of the feature detectors on each training case to prevent complex co-adaptations in which a feature detector is only helpful in the context of several other specific feature detectors.

Abstract: When a large feedforward neural network is trained on a small training set,
it typically performs poorly on held-out test data. This "overfitting" is
greatly reduced by randomly omitting half of the feature detectors on each
training case. This prevents complex co-adaptations in which a feature detector
is only helpful in the context of several other specific feature detectors.
Instead, each neuron learns to detect a feature that is generally helpful for
producing the correct answer given the combinatorially large variety of
internal contexts in which it must operate. Random "dropout" gives big
improvements on many benchmark tasks and sets new records for speech and object
recognition.

6,184 citations

•

06 Jul 2015TL;DR: In this paper, an encoder LSTM is used to map an input video sequence into a fixed length representation, which is then decoded using single or multiple decoder Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) networks to perform different tasks.

Abstract: We use Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) networks to learn representations of video sequences. Our model uses an encoder LSTM to map an input sequence into a fixed length representation. This representation is decoded using single or multiple decoder LSTMs to perform different tasks, such as reconstructing the input sequence, or predicting the future sequence. We experiment with two kinds of input sequences - patches of image pixels and high-level representations ("percepts") of video frames extracted using a pretrained convolutional net. We explore different design choices such as whether the decoder LSTMs should condition on the generated output. We analyze the outputs of the model qualitatively to see how well the model can extrapolate the learned video representation into the future and into the past. We further evaluate the representations by finetuning them for a supervised learning problem - human action recognition on the UCF-101 and HMDB-51 datasets. We show that the representations help improve classification accuracy, especially when there are only few training examples. Even models pretrained on unrelated datasets (300 hours of YouTube videos) can help action recognition performance.

1,887 citations

•

TL;DR: A Deep Boltzmann Machine is proposed for learning a generative model of multimodal data and it is shown that the model can be used to create fused representations by combining features across modalities, which are useful for classification and information retrieval.

Abstract: Data often consists of multiple diverse modalities For example, images are tagged with textual information and videos are accompanied by audio Each modality is characterized by having distinct statistical properties We propose a Deep Boltzmann Machine for learning a generative model of such multimodal data We show that the model can be used to create fused representations by combining features across modalities These learned representations are useful for classification and information retrieval By sampling from the conditional distributions over each data modality, it is possible to create these representations even when some data modalities are missing We conduct experiments on bimodal image-text and audio-video data The fused representation achieves good classification results on the MIR-Flickr data set matching or outperforming other deep models as well as SVM based models that use Multiple Kernel Learning We further demonstrate that this multimodal model helps classification and retrieval even when only unimodal data is available at test time

1,305 citations

•

03 Dec 2012TL;DR: In this paper, a Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM) is proposed for learning a generative model of data that consists of multiple and diverse input modalities, which can be used to extract a unified representation that fuses modalities together.

Abstract: A Deep Boltzmann Machine is described for learning a generative model of data that consists of multiple and diverse input modalities. The model can be used to extract a unified representation that fuses modalities together. We find that this representation is useful for classification and information retrieval tasks. The model works by learning a probability density over the space of multimodal inputs. It uses states of latent variables as representations of the input. The model can extract this representation even when some modalities are absent by sampling from the conditional distribution over them and filling them in. Our experimental results on bi-modal data consisting of images and text show that the Multimodal DBM can learn a good generative model of the joint space of image and text inputs that is useful for information retrieval from both unimodal and multimodal queries. We further demonstrate that this model significantly outperforms SVMs and LDA on discriminative tasks. Finally, we compare our model to other deep learning methods, including autoencoders and deep belief networks, and show that it achieves noticeable gains.

1,000 citations

##### Cited by

More filters

••

Microsoft

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a residual learning framework to ease the training of networks that are substantially deeper than those used previously, which won the 1st place on the ILSVRC 2015 classification task.

Abstract: Deeper neural networks are more difficult to train. We present a residual learning framework to ease the training of networks that are substantially deeper than those used previously. We explicitly reformulate the layers as learning residual functions with reference to the layer inputs, instead of learning unreferenced functions. We provide comprehensive empirical evidence showing that these residual networks are easier to optimize, and can gain accuracy from considerably increased depth. On the ImageNet dataset we evaluate residual nets with a depth of up to 152 layers—8× deeper than VGG nets [40] but still having lower complexity. An ensemble of these residual nets achieves 3.57% error on the ImageNet test set. This result won the 1st place on the ILSVRC 2015 classification task. We also present analysis on CIFAR-10 with 100 and 1000 layers. The depth of representations is of central importance for many visual recognition tasks. Solely due to our extremely deep representations, we obtain a 28% relative improvement on the COCO object detection dataset. Deep residual nets are foundations of our submissions to ILSVRC & COCO 2015 competitions1, where we also won the 1st places on the tasks of ImageNet detection, ImageNet localization, COCO detection, and COCO segmentation.

93,356 citations

•

01 Jan 2015TL;DR: This work introduces Adam, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments, and provides a regret bound on the convergence rate that is comparable to the best known results under the online convex optimization framework.

Abstract: We introduce Adam, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments. The method is straightforward to implement, is computationally efficient, has little memory requirements, is invariant to diagonal rescaling of the gradients, and is well suited for problems that are large in terms of data and/or parameters. The method is also appropriate for non-stationary objectives and problems with very noisy and/or sparse gradients. The hyper-parameters have intuitive interpretations and typically require little tuning. Some connections to related algorithms, on which Adam was inspired, are discussed. We also analyze the theoretical convergence properties of the algorithm and provide a regret bound on the convergence rate that is comparable to the best known results under the online convex optimization framework. Empirical results demonstrate that Adam works well in practice and compares favorably to other stochastic optimization methods. Finally, we discuss AdaMax, a variant of Adam based on the infinity norm.

78,539 citations

•

03 Dec 2012TL;DR: The state-of-the-art performance of CNNs was achieved by Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs) as discussed by the authors, which consists of five convolutional layers, some of which are followed by max-pooling layers, and three fully-connected layers with a final 1000-way softmax.

Abstract: We trained a large, deep convolutional neural network to classify the 1.2 million high-resolution images in the ImageNet LSVRC-2010 contest into the 1000 different classes. On the test data, we achieved top-1 and top-5 error rates of 37.5% and 17.0% which is considerably better than the previous state-of-the-art. The neural network, which has 60 million parameters and 650,000 neurons, consists of five convolutional layers, some of which are followed by max-pooling layers, and three fully-connected layers with a final 1000-way softmax. To make training faster, we used non-saturating neurons and a very efficient GPU implementation of the convolution operation. To reduce overriding in the fully-connected layers we employed a recently-developed regularization method called "dropout" that proved to be very effective. We also entered a variant of this model in the ILSVRC-2012 competition and achieved a winning top-5 test error rate of 15.3%, compared to 26.2% achieved by the second-best entry.

73,871 citations

••

07 Jun 2015TL;DR: Inception as mentioned in this paper is a deep convolutional neural network architecture that achieves the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC14).

Abstract: We propose a deep convolutional neural network architecture codenamed Inception that achieves the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC14). The main hallmark of this architecture is the improved utilization of the computing resources inside the network. By a carefully crafted design, we increased the depth and width of the network while keeping the computational budget constant. To optimize quality, the architectural decisions were based on the Hebbian principle and the intuition of multi-scale processing. One particular incarnation used in our submission for ILSVRC14 is called GoogLeNet, a 22 layers deep network, the quality of which is assessed in the context of classification and detection.

29,453 citations

••

08 Dec 2014TL;DR: A new framework for estimating generative models via an adversarial process, in which two models are simultaneously train: a generative model G that captures the data distribution and a discriminative model D that estimates the probability that a sample came from the training data rather than G.

Abstract: We propose a new framework for estimating generative models via an adversarial process, in which we simultaneously train two models: a generative model G that captures the data distribution, and a discriminative model D that estimates the probability that a sample came from the training data rather than G. The training procedure for G is to maximize the probability of D making a mistake. This framework corresponds to a minimax two-player game. In the space of arbitrary functions G and D, a unique solution exists, with G recovering the training data distribution and D equal to ½ everywhere. In the case where G and D are defined by multilayer perceptrons, the entire system can be trained with backpropagation. There is no need for any Markov chains or unrolled approximate inference networks during either training or generation of samples. Experiments demonstrate the potential of the framework through qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the generated samples.

29,410 citations