Nor Aini Abdul Rahman
Bio: Nor Aini Abdul Rahman is an academic researcher from Universiti Putra Malaysia. The author has contributed to research in topics: Biohydrogen & Pome. The author has an hindex of 22, co-authored 55 publications receiving 1681 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The biological synthesis of ZnO NPs by the microbes, the mechanisms of the biological synthesis, parameters for the optimization process and their potential application as an antimicrobial agent and feed supplement in the animal industry are reviewed as well as their toxicological hazards on animals are reviewed.
Abstract: In recent years, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have gained tremendous attention attributed to their unique properties. Notably, evidence has shown that zinc is an important nutrient in living organisms. As such, both prokaryotes and eukaryotes including bacteria, fungi and yeast are exploited for the synthesis of ZnO NPs by using microbial cells or enzyme, protein and other biomolecules compounds in either an intracellular or extracellular route. ZnO NPs exhibit antimicrobial properties, however, the properties of nanoparticles (NPs) are depended upon on their size and shape, which make them specific for various applications. Nevertheless, the desired size and shape of NPs can be obtained through the optimization process of microbes mediated synthesis by manipulating their reaction conditions. It should be noted that ZnO NPs are synthesized by various chemical and physical methods. Nonetheless, these methods are expensive and not environmentally friendly. On that account, the microbes mediated synthesis of ZnO NPs have rapidly evolved recently where the microbes are cleaner, eco-friendly, non-toxic and biocompatible as the alternatives to chemical and physical practices. Moreover, zinc in the form of NPs is more effective than their bulk counterparts and thus, they have been explored for many potential applications including in animals industry. Notably, with the advent of multi-drug resistant strains, ZnO NPs have emerged as the potential antimicrobial agents. This is mainly due to their superior properties in combating a broad spectrum of pathogens. Moreover, zinc is known as an essential trace element for most of the biological function in the animal’s body. As such, the applications of ZnO NPs have been reported to significantly enhance the health and production of the farm animals. Thus, this paper reviews the biological synthesis of ZnO NPs by the microbes, the mechanisms of the biological synthesis, parameters for the optimization process and their potential application as an antimicrobial agent and feed supplement in the animal industry as well as their toxicological hazards on animals.
TL;DR: The potential of food waste and food processing waste for bioHydrogen production and a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation are demonstrated and the economic viability of biohyd hydrogen production from food waste is discussed.
Abstract: Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed.
TL;DR: In this article, an acid phase anaerobic digestion of POME could be a potential carbon source for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)- a biodegradable thermoplastic material of microbial origin.
Abstract: Palm oil industries have been contributing significantly towards the country’s economy and increase standard of living among Malaysians. However, it has also been identified as the major contributor for discharging the largest pollution load throughout the country. Owing to high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), the palm oil mill effluent (POME) cannot be discharged directly into the environment. Thus, palm oil industries are facing tremendous challenges in order to comply with environmental regulations. While anaerobic digestion has been employed by most mills as primary treatment, POME can also be a potential source of degradable organic material which can be converted into value-added products and fine chemicals. Organic acids generated during acid-phase anaerobic digestion of POME could be a potential carbon source for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)- a biodegradable thermoplastic material of microbial origin. This paper aims at understanding how organic acids from POME may serve as a renewable feedstock for the biosynthesis of PHA.
TL;DR: In this paper, a review highlights the utilization of kitchen wastes as substrates for bioethanol production, and a proper pretreatment and hydrolysis of the kitchen wastes by physical, chemical and biological methods is explored to increase the concentration of fermentable sugar released during the hydro-lysis by enzymatic saccharification, thereby, improving the efficiency of the whole process.
Abstract: This review highlights the utilization of kitchen wastes as substrates for bioethanol production. Kitchen wastes are commonly renewable, cheap and produced in large quantities daily. Kitchen wastes also contain a significant amount of organic matters particularly carbohydrates that can be converted into fermentable sugars for subsequent use in bioethanol fermentation. However, the advantages of kitchen wastes in biofuel production are indeed an untapped resource and poorly documented due to the challenges in the handling and disposal of kitchen wastes. Hence, a proper pretreatment and hydrolysis of the kitchen wastes by physical, chemical and biological methods is explored to increase the concentration of fermentable sugar released during the hydrolysis by enzymatic saccharification, thereby, improve the efficiency of the whole process. Furthermore, the advantages and drawbacks of each technology, challenges associated with feedstock handling and storage, government policies, and applications at commercial scale are critically discussed.
TL;DR: Glaucoma prevalence is relatively high in Bangladesh, although it accounts for only a small proportion of blindness in the community, and was higher in men than women, but did not show the typical increase with age.
Abstract: Background/aim: Few studies have reported on the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of glaucoma in south Asia. This project aimed to determine the prevalence of glaucoma of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Method: A multistage, stratified, clustered sample was drawn from Dhaka Division, Bangladesh, using systematic sampling to identify individual subjects aged 35 years and older. Examination of all subjects included Snellen visual acuity, slit lamp examination (including gonioscopy and applanation tonometry) and a stereoscopic assessment of the vertical cup:disc ratio (CDR). In selected subjects, a threshold visual field examination was performed. Glaucoma was diagnosed on the basis of statistical abnormality of the vertical CDR combined with an abnormal visual field test, or in subjects with advanced glaucoma who could not complete field testing, a grossly abnormal CDR. If it was not possible to examine the optic discs and the subject was blind, glaucoma was diagnosed on the basis of a raised intraocular pressure. Results: Of 3562 eligible subjects, 2347 were examined (66%). Among people aged 40 years and older, the prevalence of definite glaucoma was 2.1% (95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 2.9; 39 people). The prevalence of definite and probable glaucoma was 3.1% (95% CI: 2.4 to 4.0; 58 people) in subjects of the same age. Primary open angle glaucoma was the most common form of glaucoma, accounting for 75% of the total. Among cases of blindness not attributable to refractive error, 5% were caused by glaucoma. Glaucoma prevalence was higher in men than women, but did not show the typical increase with age. Conclusion: Glaucoma prevalence is relatively high in Bangladesh, although it accounts for only a small proportion of blindness in the community. It is estimated that there are approximately 586 000 people 40 years and older with definite or probable glaucoma in Bangladesh.
TL;DR: Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, disproportionately affecting women and Asians, and it will be 60.5 million people with OAG and ACG in 2010, increasing to 79.6 million by 2020, and of these, 74% will have OAG.
Abstract: Aim: To estimate the number of people with open angle (OAG) and angle closure glaucoma (ACG) in 2010 and 2020. Methods: A review of published data with use of prevalence models. Data from population based studies of age specific prevalence of OAG and ACG that satisfied standard definitions were used to construct prevalence models for OAG and ACG by age, sex, and ethnicity, weighting data proportional to sample size of each study. Models were combined with UN world population projections for 2010 and 2020 to derive the estimated number with glaucoma. Results: There will be 60.5 million people with OAG and ACG in 2010, increasing to 79.6 million by 2020, and of these, 74% will have OAG. Women will comprise 55% of OAG, 70% of ACG, and 59% of all glaucoma in 2010. Asians will represent 47% of those with glaucoma and 87% of those with ACG. Bilateral blindness will be present in 4.5 million people with OAG and 3.9 million people with ACG in 2010, rising to 5.9 and 5.3 million people in 2020, respectively. Conclusions: Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, disproportionately affecting women and Asians.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed the various wastes amenable to VFA production, the pertinent factors influencing the VFO production, and the various applications of the resulting VFA.
Abstract: Low cost production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from waste by acidogenic fermentation has drawn extensive research interests as VFA is a critical substrate for microorganisms involved in the production of biodegradable plastics and bioenergy, as well as those in biological nutrient removal processes. This article reviews the various wastes amenable to VFA production, the pertinent factors influencing the VFA production, and the various applications of the resulting VFA. In addition to the usual need for reasonably high concentration, a key feature for many applications is the distribution of the chain length of the VFA. Means to regulate these performance indicators are surveyed and discussed in detail.
TL;DR: In this paper, a review aims to examine the state-of-the-art of food waste fermentation technologies for renewable energy generation, which can be used as a useful resource for production of biofuel through various fermentation processes.
Abstract: According to Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), one third of food produced globally for human consumption is lost along the food supply chain. In many countries food waste are currently landfilled or incinerated together with other combustible municipal wastes for possible recovery of energy. However, these two approaches are facing more and more economic and environmental stresses. Due to its organic- and nutrient-rich composition, theoretically food waste can be utilized as a useful resource for production of biofuel through various fermentation processes. So far, valorization of food waste has attracted increasing interest, with biogas, hydrogen, ethanol and biodiesel as final products. Therefore, this review aims to examine the state-of-the-art of food waste fermentation technologies for renewable energy generation.
TL;DR: The findings that population screening is unlikely to be cost-effective are based on an economic model whose parameter estimates have considerable uncertainty, which has implications for any future organisational changes in community eye-care services.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To assess whether open angle glaucoma (OAG) screening meets the UK National Screening Committee criteria, to compare screening strategies with case finding, to estimate test parameters, to model estimates of cost and cost-effectiveness, and to identify areas for future research. DATA SOURCES: Major electronic databases were searched up to December 2005. REVIEW METHODS: Screening strategies were developed by wide consultation. Markov submodels were developed to represent screening strategies. Parameter estimates were determined by systematic reviews of epidemiology, economic evaluations of screening, and effectiveness (test accuracy, screening and treatment). Tailored highly sensitive electronic searches were undertaken. RESULTS: Most potential screening tests reviewed had an estimated specificity of 85% or higher. No test was clearly most accurate, with only a few, heterogeneous studies for each test. No randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of screening were identified. Based on two treatment RCTs, early treatment reduces the risk of progression. Extrapolating from this, and assuming accelerated progression with advancing disease severity, without treatment the mean time to blindness in at least one eye was approximately 23 years, compared to 35 years with treatment. Prevalence would have to be about 3-4% in 40 year olds with a screening interval of 10 years to approach cost-effectiveness. It is predicted that screening might be cost-effective in a 50-year-old cohort at a prevalence of 4% with a 10-year screening interval. General population screening at any age, thus, appears not to be cost-effective. Selective screening of groups with higher prevalence (family history, black ethnicity) might be worthwhile, although this would only cover 6% of the population. Extension to include other at-risk cohorts (e.g. myopia and diabetes) would include 37% of the general population, but the prevalence is then too low for screening to be considered cost-effective. Screening using a test with initial automated classification followed by assessment by a specialised optometrist, for test positives, was more cost-effective than initial specialised optometric assessment. The cost-effectiveness of the screening programme was highly sensitive to the perspective on costs (NHS or societal). In the base-case model, the NHS costs of visual impairment were estimated as 669 pounds. If annual societal costs were 8800 pounds, then screening might be considered cost-effective for a 40-year-old cohort with 1% OAG prevalence assuming a willingness to pay of 30,000 pounds per quality-adjusted life-year. Of lesser importance were changes to estimates of attendance for sight tests, incidence of OAG, rate of progression and utility values for each stage of OAG severity. Cost-effectiveness was not particularly sensitive to the accuracy of screening tests within the ranges observed. However, a highly specific test is required to reduce large numbers of false-positive referrals. The findings that population screening is unlikely to be cost-effective are based on an economic model whose parameter estimates have considerable uncertainty. In particular, if rate of progression and/or costs of visual impairment are higher than estimated then screening could be cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: While population screening is not cost-effective, the targeted screening of high-risk groups may be. Procedures for identifying those at risk, for quality assuring the programme, as well as adequate service provision for those screened positive would all be needed. Glaucoma detection can be improved by increasing attendance for eye examination, and improving the performance of current testing by either refining practice or adding in a technology-based first assessment, the latter being the more cost-effective option. This has implications for any future organisational changes in community eye-care services. Further research should aim to develop and provide quality data to populate the economic model, by conducting a feasibility study of interventions to improve detection, by obtaining further data on costs of blindness, risk of progression and health outcomes, and by conducting an RCT of interventions to improve the uptake of glaucoma testing.