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Norman Pendegraft

Bio: Norman Pendegraft is an academic researcher from University of Idaho. The author has contributed to research in topics: Computer security model & Information system. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 23 publications receiving 111 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of games are explored as a means for potential team members to share background information before the groups are chosen and the process used to develop the “circle‐and‐sniff” game and its administration is described.
Abstract: The use of team‐based activities is popular in education and training settings, but such exercises are not without their problems. Examines the group‐formation process and specifically explores the use of games as a means for potential team members to share background information before the groups are chosen. Describes the process used to develop the “circle‐and‐sniff” game and its administration, and presents the results of the study.

29 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Game Theory and an extension, the Theory of Moves, are presented as alternative methods of modeling IT investment decisions that specifically considers investments motivated by operating or competitive necessity.
Abstract: Businesses invest billions of dollars in information technology every year. Sometimes the incentive for a given investment may not be apparent when considered using traditional financial analysis methods. in this article, Game Theory and an extension, the Theory of Moves, are presented as alternative methods of modeling IT investment decisions. This technique specifically considers investments motivated by operating or competitive necessity. the modeling process is discussed and several examples from the current trade press are examined.

16 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the performance of tit-for-tat in iterated plays of prisoners' dilemma and chicken and showed that the success of the strategy is sensitive to the number of players and the assignment of payoff values.
Abstract: The paper examines the performance of tit‐for‐tat in iterated plays of prisoners’ dilemma and chicken. In particular, the paper examines, via computer simulations, a space of surrogate Axelrod‐type tournaments over these games. The surrogate tournaments are specified in terms of characteristics of strategies similar to those Axelrod identifies as fundamental. The paper shows that the zones of optimality for tit‐for‐tat in tournament play of both prisoners’ dilemma and chicken remarkably constrained, but that tit‐for‐tat generally does well relative to other strategies. Furthermore, our results show that the success of tit‐for‐tat is sensitive to the number of players and the assignment of payoff values.

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A theoretically sound model linking student and system security characteristics to students' security behaviors is developed and presented and the empirical results show that training to use security measures has no impact on students'Security behaviors while experience with security does.
Abstract: Information systems administrators face a difficult balance between providing sufficient security to protect the organization's computing resources while not inhibiting the appropriate use of these resources. Striking this balance is particularly difficult in higher education due to the diversity of computer uses and users. This is accentuated by one large, diverse user group, namely students. To facilitate striking such a balance, a better understanding of students' motivations to use security measures is useful. A theoretically sound model linking student and system security characteristics to students' security behaviors is developed and presented in this paper. The model is operationalized using student responses to a web-based questionnaire. The empirical results show that training to use security measures has no impact on students' security behaviors while experience with security does. Furthermore, ease of security use positively impacts students' security behaviors through security self-efficacy. The influence of peers has similar impacts through security outcome expectancy.

10 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine two explanatory models for the relative lack of conflict between democracies: the normative model suggests that democracies do not fight each other because norms of compromise and cooperation prevent their conflicts of interest from escalating into violent clashes, and the structural model asserts that complex political mobilization processes impose institutional constraints on the leaders of two democracies confronting each other to make violent conflict impossible.
Abstract: Democratic states are in general about as conflict- and war-prone as nondemocracies, but democracies have rarely clashed with one another in violent conflict. We first show that democracy, as well as other factors, accounts for the relative lack of conflict. Then we examine two explanatory models. The normative model suggests that democracies do not fight each other because norms of compromise and cooperation prevent their conflicts of interest from escalating into violent clashes. The structural model asserts that complex political mobilization processes impose institutional constraints on the leaders of two democracies confronting each other to make violent conflict unfeasible. Using different data sets of international conflict and a multiplicity of indicators, we find that (1) democracy, in and of itself, has a consistent and robust negative effect on the likelihood of conflict or escalation in a dyad; (2) both the normative and structural models are supported by the data; and (3) support for the normative model is more robust and consistent.

1,215 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
09 Dec 1988-Science
TL;DR: Empirical andoretical work has led to a deeper understanding of the role of other factors in the evolution of cooperation: the number of players, the range of possible choices, variation in the payoff structure, noise, the shadow of the future, population dynamics, and population structure.
Abstract: Axelrod's model of the evolution of cooperation was based on the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. Empirical work following this approach has helped establish the prevalence of cooperation based on reciprocity. Theoretical work has led to a deeper understanding of the role of other factors in the evolution of cooperation: the number of players, the range of possible choices, variation in the payoff structure, noise, the shadow of the future, population dynamics, and population structure. C OOPERATION IS A TOPIC OF CONTINUING INTEREST FOR the social and biological sciences. A theory of cooperation based upon reciprocity (1-3) has engendered a wide literature concerning the evolution of cooperation. In this article, we survey this literature in order to determine what new insights have been gained. Although we shall concentrate on theoretical work, it is important to note that scholars have been active in pursuing empirical applications of the theory. Huth (4) found that military conflict during the last century was most successfully deterred when a challenge was met with reciprocity. Cooperation based on reciprocity has been supported for vampire bats (5, 6), vervet monkeys (7), and sessile invertebrates (8). Experimental simulations of defection have been presented to stickleback fish (9) and tree swallows (10); the findings are consistent with reciprocity. On the other hand, Nol (11) rejected reciprocity as an explanation of cooperation between the sexes in chick-rearing by the American oyster catcher, arguing that data on foraging trips and energy use support a theory based on the efficient allocation of energy by the birds. Other investigators have pointed to the difficulties in determining whether observed cooperation is due to a tit-for-tat-like process (12). Despite these difficulties, cooperation based upon reciprocity has received substantial empirical support.

778 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An analytical model for the project team selection problem is proposed by considering several human and nonhuman factors and uses fuzzy objectives and crisp constraints to select the most suitable team members to form the best possible team for a given project.
Abstract: With their high potential, high motivation, great problem-solving ability and flexibility, project teams are important work structures for the business life. The success of these teams is highly dependent upon the people involved in the project team. This makes the project team selection an important factor for project success. The project team selection can be defined as selecting the right team members, which will together perform a particular project/task within a given deadline. In this article, an analytical model for the project team selection problem is proposed by considering several human and nonhuman factors. Because of the imprecise nature of the problem, fuzzy concepts like triangular fuzzy numbers and linguistic variables are used. The proposed model is a fuzzy multiple objective optimization model with fuzzy objectives and crisp constraints. The skill suitability of each team candidate is reflected to the model by suitability values. These values are obtained by using the fuzzy ratings method. The suitability values of the candidates and the size of the each project team are modeled as fuzzy objectives. The proposed algorithm takes into account the time and the budget limitations of each project and interpersonal relations between the team candidates. These issues are modeled as hard-crisp constraints. The proposed model uses fuzzy objectives and crisp constraints to select the most suitable team members to form the best possible team for a given project. A simulated annealing algorithm is developed to solve the proposed fuzzy optimization model. Software based on C + + computer programming language is also developed to experiment on the proposed model in forming project teams.

165 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A quantitative analysis of over 72,600 citations spread across 1406 IS articles in 16 journals over the period 1990-2003 reveals a distinct trend toward a cumulative tradition, a changing mix of reference disciplines, and a two-way relationship between IS and some of the more mature disciplines.
Abstract: For the past two decades notions of “cumulative tradition” and “reference disciplines” have been a significant part of the introspective debates on the IS field. We provide an 1 Detmar Straub was the accepting senior editor. This paper was submitted on June 5, 2004, and went through three revisions. 2 We are indebted to Detmar Straub, and three anonymous reviewers for their many insightful comments on earlier drafts of this article. Grover et al./ The Evolution and State of IS Journal of the Association for Information Systems Vol. 7 No. 5, pp. 270-325/ May 2006 271 exploratory test on these notions using sociometric analysis. In doing so, we extend the work of Culnan and Swanson originally carried out about 25 years ago. By using the concept of a “work point” and “reference points” to identify where an IS article is published and the extent to which it draws from or contributes to other disciplines, we can position research in the IS field. First, a quantitative analysis of over 72,600 citations spread across 1406 IS articles in 16 journals over the period 1990-2003 reveals a distinct trend toward a cumulative tradition, a changing mix of reference disciplines, and a two-way relationship between IS and some of the more mature disciplines. Second, post-hoc content analysis provides a glimpse of how IS work is being utilized by other disciplines. Overall, our analysis indicates that IS is taking up a more socio-technical persona, building upon its own knowledge base, and repaying its debts by contributing to other disciplines. We interpret the movement towards building a cumulative tradition, and informing work in other disciplines as positive, as we strive toward being part of an intellectual network and establish centrality in areas that matter to us most.

128 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A variety of simulation projects are described, including social choice theory, individual-level simulation models, international relations, the prisoner's dilemma game, and more general agent-based models of multiperson interaction.
Abstract: Simulation research has made some notable contributions in political science. This article describes a variety of simulation projects and points out the strengths and weaknesses of simulation in co...

81 citations