Other affiliations: University of California
Bio: Norman Terry is an academic researcher from University of California, Berkeley. The author has contributed to research in topics: Photosynthesis & Chlorophyll. The author has an hindex of 64, co-authored 158 publications receiving 16722 citations. Previous affiliations of Norman Terry include University of California.
Papers published on a yearly basis
••28 Nov 2003
TL;DR: Recent advances in the understanding of the plant's ability to metabolize Se into volatile Se forms (phytovolatilization) are discussed, along with the application of phytoremediation for the cleanup of Se contaminated environments.
Abstract: Plants vary considerably in their physiological response to selenium (Se). Some plant species growing on seleniferous soils are Se tolerant and accumulate very high concentrations of Se (Se accumulators), but most plants are Se nonaccumulators and are Se-sensitive. This review summarizes knowledge of the physiology and biochemistry of both types of plants, particularly with regard to Se uptake and transport, biochemical pathways of assimilation, volatilization and incorporation into proteins, and mechanisms of toxicity and tolerance. Molecular approaches are providing new insights into the role of sulfate transporters and sulfur assimilation enzymes in selenate uptake and metabolism, as well as the question of Se essentiality in plants. Recent advances in our understanding of the plant's ability to metabolize Se into volatile Se forms (phytovolatilization) are discussed, along with the application of phytoremediation for the cleanup of Se contaminated environments.
TL;DR: In this article, the state of knowledge about chromium mobility and distribution in the environment and the physiological responses of plants to chromium with the desire to understand how these processes influence our ability to use low cost, environmentally friendly biological remediation technologies to clean up contaminated soils, sediments, and waters.
Abstract: Chromium, in the trivalent form (Cr(III)), is an important component of a balanced human and animal diet and its deficiency causes disturbance to the glucose and lipids metabolism in humans and animals. In contrast, hexavalent Cr (Cr(VI)) is highly toxic carcinogen and may cause death to animals and humans if ingested in large doses. Recently, concern about Cr as an environmental pollutant has been escalating due to its build up to toxic levels in the environment as a result of various industrial and agricultural activities. In this review, we present the state of knowledge about chromium mobility and distribution in the environment and the physiological responses of plants to Cr with the desire to understand how these processes influence our ability to use low cost, environmentally friendly biological remediation technologies to clean up Cr-contaminated soils, sediments, and waters. The use of biological remediation technologies such as bioremediation and phytoremediation for the cleanup of Cr-contaminated areas has received increasing interest from researchers worldwide. Several methods have been suggested and experimentally tested with varying degrees of success.
••24 Sep 1999
Abstract: Field Demonstrations of Phytoremediation of Lead Contaminated Soils Phytoremediation by Constructed Wetlands Factors Influencing Field Phytoremediations of Selenium-Laden Soils Phytoremediation of Selenium-Polluted Soils and Waters by Phytovolitization Metal Hyperaccumulator Plants: a Review of the Ecology and Physiology of a Biological Resource For Phytoremediation Of Metal-Polluted Soils - Potential for Phytoextraction of Zinc and Cadmium from Soils Using Hyperaccumulator Plants Improving Metal Hyperaccumulator Wild Plants to Develop Commercial Phytoextraction Systems: Approach and Progress Physiology of Zn Hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens Metal-Specific Patterns of Tolerance, Uptake, and Transport of Heavy Metals in Hyperaccumulating and Non-Hyperaccumulating Metallophytes The Role of Root Exudates in Nickel Hyperaccumulation and Tolerance in Accumulator and Nonaccumulator Species of Thlaspi Engineered Phytoremediation of Mercury Pollution in Soil and Water Using Bacterial Genes Metal Tolerance in Plants: The Role of Phytochelatins and Metallothioneins The Genetics of Metal Tolerance and Accumulation in Higher Plants Ecological Genetics and the Evolution of Trace Element Hyperaccumulation in Plants The Role of Bacteria in the Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals Microphyte-Mediated Biogeochemistry and Its Role in In Situ Selenium Bioremediation In Situ Gentle Remediation Measures For Heavy Metal Polluted Soils In Situ Metal Immobilization and Phytostabilization of Contaminated Soils Phytoextraction or In-Place Inactivation (Phytostabilization): Technical, Economic, and Regulatory Considerations of the Soil-Lead Issue NTI/Sales Copy
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the potential of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) to accumulate Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Se when supplied individually in a nutrient solution at a series of concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg L -1.
Abstract: There has been much interest recently in the use of constructed wetlands for the removal of toxic trace elements from wastewaters. Wetland plants play an important role in the trace elements removal process. It is not known, however, which wetland plant species absorb specific trace elements at the fastest rates. Such knowledge is essential to maximize the efficiency of trace element removal by wetlands. In this study, we investigated the potential of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) to accumulate Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Se when supplied individually in a nutrient solution at a series of concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 10 mg L -1 . The results show that under experimental conditions, duckweed proved to be a good accumulator of Cd, Se, and Cu, a moderate accumulator of Cr, and a poor accumulator of Ni and Pb. The highest concentrations of each trace element accumulated in duckweed tissues were 133 g Cd kg -1 , 4.27 g Se kg -1 , 336 g Cu kg -1 , 2.87 g Cr kg -1 , 1.79 g Ni kg -1 , and 0.63 g Pb kg -1 . Duckweed exhibited some symptoms of toxicity (e.g, reduced growth, chlorosis) at higher levels of element supply (except for Cr). The toxicity effect of each trace element on plant growth was, in descending order of damage, Cu > Se > Pb > Cd > Ni > Cr. We conclude that duckweed shows promise for the removal of Cd, Se, and Cu from contaminated wastewater since it accumulates high concentrations of these elements. Further, the growth rates and harvest potential make duckweed a good species for phytoremediation activities.
TL;DR: It is concluded that overexpression of gamma-ECS increases biosynthesis of glutathione and PCs, which in turn enhances Cd tolerance and accumulation, and appears to be a promising strategy for the production of plants with superior heavy metal phytoremediation capacity.
Abstract: To investigate rate-limiting factors for glutathione and phytochelatin (PC) production and the importance of these compounds for heavy metal tolerance, Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) was genetically engineered to overexpress the Escherichia coli gshI gene encoding gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS), targeted to the plastids. The gamma-ECS transgenic seedlings showed increased tolerance to Cd and had higher concentrations of PCs, gamma-GluCys, glutathione, and total non-protein thiols compared with wild-type (WT) seedlings. When tested in a hydroponic system, gamma-ECS mature plants accumulated more Cd than WT plants: shoot Cd concentrations were 40% to 90% higher. In spite of their higher tissue Cd concentration, the gamma-ECS plants grew better in the presence of Cd than WT. We conclude that overexpression of gamma-ECS increases biosynthesis of glutathione and PCs, which in turn enhances Cd tolerance and accumulation. Thus, overexpression of gamma-ECS appears to be a promising strategy for the production of plants with superior heavy metal phytoremediation capacity.
01 Jan 1984
TL;DR: The Biosphere The Anthroposphere Soils and Soil Processes Weathering Processes Pedogenic Processes Soil Constituents Trace Elements Minerals Organic Matter Organisms in Soils Trace Elements in Plants.
Abstract: Chapter 1 The Biosphere Chapter 2 The Anthroposphere Introduction Air Pollution Water Pollution Soil Plants Chapter 3 Soils and Soil Processes Introduction Weathering Processes Pedogenic Processes Chapter 4 Soil Constituents Introduction Trace Elements Minerals Organic Matter Organisms in Soils Chapter 5 Trace Elements in Plants Introduction Absorption Translocation Availability Essentiality and Deficiency Toxicity and Tolerance Speciation Interaction Chapter 6 Elements of Group 1 (Previously Group Ia) Introduction Lithium Rubidium Cesium Chapter 7 Elements of Group 2 (Previously Group IIa) Beryllium Strontium Barium Radium Chapter 8 Elements of Group 3 (Previously Group IIIb) Scandium Yttrium Lanthanides Actinides Chapter 9 Elements of Group 4 (Previously Group IVb) Titanium Zirconium Hafnium Chapter 10 Elements of Group 5 (Previously Group Vb) Vanadium Niobium Tantalum Chapter 11 Elements of Group 6 (Previously Group VIb) Chromium Molybdenum Tungsten Chapter 12 Elements of Group 7 (Previously Group VIIb) Manganese Technetium Rhenium Chapter 13 Elements of Group 8 (Previously Part of Group VIII) Iron Ruthenium Osmium Chapter 14 Elements of Group 9 (Previously Part of Group VIII) Cobalt Rhodium Iridium Chapter 15 Elements of Group 10 (Previously Part of Group VIII) Nickel Palladium Platinum Chapter 16 Elements of Group 11 (Previously Group Ib) Copper Silver Gold Chapter 17 Trace Elements of Group 12 (Previously of Group IIb) Zinc Cadmium Mercury Chapter 18 Elements of Group 13 (Previously Group IIIa) Boron Aluminum Gallium Indium Thallium Chapter 19 Elements of Group I4 (Previously Group IVa) Silicon Germanium Tin Lead Chapter 20 Elements of Group 15 (Previously Group Va) Arsenic Antimony Bismuth Chapter 21 Elements of Group 16 (Previously Group VIa) Selenium Tellurium Polonium Chapter 22 Elements of Group 17 (Previously Group VIIa) Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine
01 Jan 1982
TL;DR: In this article, the Soil as a Plant Nutrient Medium is discussed and the importance of water relations in plant growth and crop production, and the role of water as a plant nutrient medium.
Abstract: 1. Plant Nutrients. 2. The Soil as a Plant Nutrient Medium. 3. Nutrient Uptake and Assimilation. 4. Plant Water Relationships. 5. Plant Growth and Crop Production. 6. Fertilizer Application. 7. Nitrogen. 8. Sulphur. 9. Phosphorus. 10. Potassium. 11. Calcium. 12. Magnesium. 13. Iron. 14. Manganese. 15. Zinc. 16. Copper. 17. Molybdenum. 18. Boron. 19. Further Elements of Importance. 20. Elements with More Toxic Effects. General Readings. References. Index.
TL;DR: The generation, sites of production and role of ROS as messenger molecules as well as inducers of oxidative damage are described and the antioxidative defense mechanisms operating in the cells for scavenging of ROS overproduced under various stressful conditions of the environment are described.
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as a normal product of plant cellular metabolism. Various environmental stresses lead to excessive production of ROS causing progressive oxidative damage and ultimately cell death. Despite their destructive activity, they are well-described second messengers in a variety of cellular processes, including conferment of tolerance to various environmental stresses. Whether ROS would serve as signaling molecules or could cause oxidative damage to the tissues depends on the delicate equilibrium between ROS production, and their scavenging. Efficient scavenging of ROS produced during various environmental stresses requires the action of several nonenzymatic as well as enzymatic antioxidants present in the tissues. In this paper, we describe the generation, sites of production and role of ROS as messenger molecules as well as inducers of oxidative damage. Further, the antioxidative defense mechanisms operating in the cells for scavenging of ROS overproduced under various stressful conditions of the environment have been discussed in detail.
TL;DR: This review gives details about some heavy metals and their toxicity mechanisms, along with their health effects.
Abstract: Heavy metal toxicity has proven to be a major threat and there are several health risks associated with it. The toxic effects of these metals, even though they do not have any biological role, remain present in some or the other form harmful for the human body and its proper functioning. They sometimes act as a pseudo element of the body while at certain times they may even interfere with metabolic processes. Few metals, such as aluminium, can be removed through elimination activities, while some metals get accumulated in the body and food chain, exhibiting a chronic nature. Various public health measures have been undertaken to control, prevent and treat metal toxicity occurring at various levels, such as occupational exposure, accidents and environmental factors. Metal toxicity depends upon the absorbed dose, the route of exposure and duration of exposure, i.e. acute or chronic. This can lead to various disorders and can also result in excessive damage due to oxidative stress induced by free radical formation. This review gives details about some heavy metals and their toxicity mechanisms, along with their health effects.
TL;DR: The effects of drought stress on the growth, phenology, water and nutrient relations, photosynthesis, assimilate partitioning, and respiration in plants, and the mechanism of drought resistance in plants on a morphological, physiological and molecular basis are reviewed.
Abstract: Scarcity of water is a severe environmental constraint to plant productivity. Drought-induced loss in crop yield probably exceeds losses from all other causes, since both the severity and duration of the stress are critical. Here, we have reviewed the effects of drought stress on the growth, phenology, water and nutrient relations, photosynthesis, assimilate partitioning, and respiration in plants. This article also describes the mechanism of drought resistance in plants on a morphological, physiological and molecular basis. Various management strategies have been proposed to cope with drought stress. Drought stress reduces leaf size, stem extension and root proliferation, disturbs plant water relations and reduces water-use efficiency. Plants display a variety of physiological and biochemical responses at cellular and whole-organism levels towards prevailing drought stress, thus making it a complex phenomenon. CO2 assimilation by leaves is reduced mainly by stomatal closure, membrane damage and disturbed activity of various enzymes, especially those of CO2 fixation and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Enhanced metabolite flux through the photorespiratory pathway increases the oxidative load on the tissues as both processes generate reactive oxygen species. Injury caused by reactive oxygen species to biological macromolecules under drought stress is among the major deterrents to growth. Plants display a range of mechanisms to withstand drought stress. The major mechanisms include curtailed water loss by increased diffusive resistance, enhanced water uptake with prolific and deep root systems and its efficient use, and smaller and succulent leaves to reduce the transpirational loss. Among the nutrients, potassium ions help in osmotic adjustment; silicon increases root endodermal silicification and improves the cell water balance. Low-molecular-weight osmolytes, including glycinebetaine, proline and other amino acids, organic acids, and polyols, are crucial to sustain cellular functions under drought. Plant growth substances such as salicylic acid, auxins, gibberrellins, cytokinin and abscisic acid modulate the plant responses towards drought. Polyamines, citrulline and several enzymes act as antioxidants and reduce the adverse effects of water deficit. At molecular levels several drought-responsive genes and transcription factors have been identified, such as the dehydration-responsive element-binding gene, aquaporin, late embryogenesis abundant proteins and dehydrins. Plant drought tolerance can be managed by adopting strategies such as mass screening and breeding, marker-assisted selection and exogenous application of hormones and osmoprotectants to seed or growing plants, as well as engineering for drought resistance.