O. D. Bonner
Bio: O. D. Bonner is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Ion exchange & Activity coefficient. The author has an hindex of 10, co-authored 14 publications receiving 410 citations.
TL;DR: The first general, detailed qualitative molecular mechanism for the origins of ion-specific (Hofmeister) effects on the surface potential difference at an air-water interface is proposed; this mechanism suggests a simple model for the behaviour of water at all interfaces, regardless of whether the non-aqueous component is neutral or charged, polar or non-polar.
Abstract: Starting from known properties of non-specific salt effects on the surface tension at an air–water interface, we propose the first general, detailed qualitative molecular mechanism for the origins of ion-specific (Hofmeister) effects on the surface potential difference at an air–water interface; this mechanism suggests a simple model for the behaviour of water at all interfaces (including water–solute interfaces), regardless of whether the non-aqueous component is neutral or charged, polar or non-polar Specifically, water near an isolated interface is conceptually divided into three layers, each layer being 1 water-molecule thick We propose that the solute determines the behaviour of the adjacent first interfacial water layer ( I 1 ); that the bulk solution determines the behaviour of the third interfacial water layer ( I 3 ), and that both I 1 and I 3 compete for hydrogen-bonding interactions with the intervening water layer ( I 2 ), which can be thought of as a transition layer The model requires that a polar kosmotrope (polar water-structure maker) interact with I 1 more strongly than would bulk water in its place; that a chaotrope (water-structure breaker) interact with I 1 somewhat less strongly than would bulk water in its place; and that a non-polar kosmotrope (non-polar water-structure maker) interact with I 1 much less strongly than would bulk water in its place We introduce two simple new postulates to describe the behaviour of I 1 water molecules in aqueous solution The first, the ‘relative competition’ postulate, states that an I 1 water molecule, in maximizing its free energy (—δG), will favour those of its highly directional polar (hydrogen-bonding) interactions with its immediate neighbours for which the maximum pairwise enthalpy of interaction (—δ H ) is greatest; that is, it will favour the strongest interactions We describe such behaviour as ‘compliant’, since an I 1 water molecule will continually adjust its position to maximize these strong interactions Its behaviour towards its remaining immediate neighbours, with whom it interacts relatively weakly (but still favourably), we describe as ‘recalcitrant’, since it will be unable to adjust its position to maximize simultaneously these interactions The second, the ‘charge transfer’ postulate, states that the strong polar kosmotrope–water interaction has at least a small amount of covalent character, resulting in significant transfer of charge from polar kosmotropes to water–especially of negative charge from Lewis bases (both neutral and anionic); and that the water-structuring effect of polar kosmotropes is caused not only by the tight binding (partial immobilization) of the immediately adjacent ( I 1 ) water molecules, but also by an attempt to distribute among several water molecules the charge transferred from the solute When extensive, cumulative charge transfer to solvent occurs, as with macromolecular polyphosphates, the solvation layer (the layer of solvent whose behaviour is determined by the solute) can become up to 5- or 6-water-molecules thick We then use the ‘relative competition’ postulate, which lends itself to simple diagramming, in conjunction with the ‘charge transfer’ postulate to provide a new, startlingly simple and direct qualitative explanation for the heat of dilution of neutral polar solutes and the temperature dependence of relative viscosity of neutral polar solutes in aqueous solution This explanation also requires the new and intriguing general conclusion that as the temperature of aqueous solutions is lowered towards o °C, solutes tend to acquire a non-uniform distribution in the solution, becoming increasingly likely to cluster 2 water molecules away from other solutes and surfaces (the driving force for this process being the conversion of transition layer water to bulk water) The implications of these conclusions for understanding the mechanism of action of general (gaseous) anaesthetics and other important interfacial phenomena are then addressed
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors summarized the nature of the global water problem and reviewed the state of the art of membrane technology and identified existing deficiencies of current membranes and the opportunities to resolve them with innovative polymer chemistry and physics.
Abstract: Two of the greatest challenges facing the 21st century involve providing sustainable supplies of clean water and energy, two highly interrelated resources, at affordable costs. Membrane technology is expected to continue to dominate the water purifica- tion technologies owing to its energy efficiency. However, there is a need for improved membranes that have higher flux, are more selective, are less prone to various types of fouling, and are more resistant to the chemical environment, especially chlorine, of these processes. This article summarizes the nature of the global water problem and reviews the state of the art of membrane technology. Existing deficiencies of current membranes and the opportunities to resolve them with innovative polymer chemistry and physics are identified. Extensive background is provided to help the reader understand the fundamental issues involved. V C 2010 Wiley Periodi- cals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 48: 1685-1718, 2010
TL;DR: A survey of polymers considered for such applications is provided in this paper, where a solution diffusion model is used as a framework for discussing structure/property relations in polymers related to water and salt transport properties.
Abstract: Fundamental water and salt transport properties of polymers are critical for applications such as reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), forward osmosis (FO), pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) that require controlled water and salt transport. Key developments in the field of water and salt transport in polymer membranes are reviewed, and a survey of polymers considered for such applications is provided. Many polymers considered for such applications contain charged functional groups, such as sulfonate groups, that can dissociate in the presence of water. Water and ion transport data from the literature are reviewed to highlight the similarities and differences between charged and uncharged polymers. Additionally, the influence of other polymer structure characteristics, such as cross-linking and morphology in phase separated systems, on water and salt transport properties is discussed. The role of free volume on water and salt transport properties is discussed. The solution–diffusion model, which describes the transport of water and ions in nonporous polymers, is used as a framework for discussing structure/property relations in polymers related to water and salt transport properties. Areas where current knowledge is limited and opportunities for further research are also noted.
TL;DR: Rhizopus arrhizus biomass was found to absorb a variety of different metal cations and anions but did not absorb alkali metal ions, and it is proposed that the uptake mechanism involves electrostatic attraction to positively charged functional groups.
Abstract: Rhizopus arrhizus biomass was found to absorb a variety of different metal cations and anions but did not absorb alkali metal ions. The amount of uptake of the cations was directly related to ionic radii of La3+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Ba2+, Hg2+, Pb2+, UO22+, and Ag+. The uptake of all the cations is consistent with absorption of the metals by sites in the biomass containing phosphate, carboxylate, and other functional groups. The uptake of the molybdate and vanadate anions was strongly pH dependent, and it is proposed that the uptake mechanism involves electrostatic attraction to positively charged functional groups.
TL;DR: Evidence is presented that the reverse protonation of imidazol-2-yl carbenes by solvent water is limited by solvent reorganization and occurs with a rate constant of kHOH = kreorg = 10(11) s-1, and a simple rationale for the observed substituent effects on the thermodynamic stability of N-heterocyclicCarbenes is presented.
Abstract: We report second-order rate constants kDO (M-1 s-1) for exchange for deuterium of the C(2)-proton of a series of simple imidazolium cations to give the corresponding singlet imidazol-2-yl carbenes in D2O at 25 degrees C and I = 1.0 (KCl). Evidence is presented that the reverse protonation of imidazol-2-yl carbenes by solvent water is limited by solvent reorganization and occurs with a rate constant of kHOH = kreorg = 10(11) s-1. The data were used to calculate reliable carbon acid pK(a)s for ionization of imidazolium cations at C(2) to give the corresponding singlet imidazol-2-yl carbenes in water: pKa = 23.8 for the imidazolium cation, pKa = 23.0 for the 1,3-dimethylimidazolium cation, pKa = 21.6 for the 1,3-dimethylbenzimidazolium cation, and pKa = 21.2 for the 1,3-bis-((S)-1-phenylethyl)benzimidazolium cation. The data also provide the thermodynamic driving force for a 1,2-hydrogen shift at a singlet carbene: K12 = 5 x 10(16) for rearrangement of the parent imidazol-2-yl carbene to give neutral imidazole in water at 298 K, which corresponds to a favorable Gibbs free energy change of 23 kcal/mol. We present a simple rationale for the observed substituent effects on the thermodynamic stability of N-heterocyclic carbenes relative to a variety of neutral and cationic derivatives that emphasizes the importance of the choice of reference reaction when assessing the stability of N-heterocyclic carbenes.