Bio: Olja Vidjak is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Zooplankton & Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The author has an hindex of 14, co-authored 37 publications receiving 489 citations.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyzed and compared Mediterranean mesozooplankton time series spanning 1957-2006 from six coastal stations in the Balearic, Ligurian, Tyrrhenian, North and Middle Adriatic and Aegean Sea.
Abstract: We analyzed and compared Mediterranean mesozooplankton time series spanning 1957–2006 from six coastal stations in the Balearic, Ligurian, Tyrrhenian, North and Middle Adriatic and Aegean Sea. Our analysis focused on fluctuations of major zooplankton taxonomic groups and their relation with environmental and climatic variability. Average seasonal cycles and interannual trends were derived. Stations spanned a large range of trophic status from oligotrophic to moderately eutrophic. Intra-station analyses showed (1) coherent multi-taxa trends off Villefranche sur mer that diverge from the previous results found at species level, (2) in Baleares, covariation of zooplankton and water masses as a consequence of the boundary hydrographic regime in the middle Western Mediterranean, (3) decrease in trophic status and abundance of some taxonomic groups off Naples, and (4) off Athens, an increase of zooplankton abundance and decrease in chlorophyll possibly caused by reduction of anthropogenic nutrient input, increase of microbial components, and more efficient grazing control on phytoplankton. (5) At basin scale, the analysis of temperature revealed significant positive correlations between Villefranche, Trieste and Naples for annual and/or winter average, and synchronous abrupt cooling and warming events centered in 1987 at the same three sites. After correction for multiple comparisons, we found no significant correlations between climate indices and local temperature or zooplankton abundance, nor between stations for zooplankton abundance, therefore we suggest that for these coastal stations local drivers (climatic, anthropogenic) are dominant and that the link between local and larger scale of climate should be investigated further if we are to understand zooplankton fluctuations.
Aarhus University1, University of Tartu2, Finnish Environment Institute3, Centre national de la recherche scientifique4, University of Malta5, Rijkswaterstaat6, Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality7, Naturalis8, Leiden University9, University of the Azores10, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center11, University of Lisbon12, University of Alicante13, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences14, Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science15
TL;DR: The analysis revealed that a large number of NIS was not reported from the initial assessments, and several NIS initially listed are currently considered as native in Europe or were proven to be historical misreportings.
Abstract: Refined baseline inventories of non-indigenous species (NIS) are set per European Union Member State (MS), in the context of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The inventories are based on the initial assessment of the MSFD (2012) and the updated data of the European Alien Species Information Network, in collaboration with NIS experts appointed by the MSs. The analysis revealed that a large number of NIS was not reported from the initial assessments. Moreover, several NIS initially listed are currently considered as native in Europe or were proven to be historical misreportings. The refined baseline inventories constitute a milestone for the MSFD Descriptor 2 implementation, providing an improved basis for reporting new NIS introductions, facilitating the MSFD D2 assessment. In addition, the inventories can help MSs in the establishment of monitoring systems of targeted NIS, and foster cooperation on monitoring of NIS across or within shared marine subregions.
TL;DR: Annual dynamics and ecological characteristics of the genus Dinophysis spp.
Abstract: Annual dynamics and ecological characteristics of the genus Dinophysis spp. and associated shellfish toxicity events were studied from 2001 to 2005 during monitoring fieldwork in the coastal waters of the eastern Adriatic Sea. Analysis of the seasonal occurrence of Dinophysis species identified D. acuminata and D. sacculus as typical spring species, D. caudata, D. fortii and D. rotundata as summer and late summer species and D. tripos as a winter species. The highest abundances occurred when there were large differences between surface and bottom temperatures and salinities. D. caudata, D. sacculus and D. rotundata abundances had significant relationships with Dt, while the highest abundances of D. acuta, D. fortii and D. tripos were associated with high Ds values. Much higher abundances of D. caudata and D. fortii in offshore compared to inshore waters of the northern Adriatic Sea and the significant inverse relationship of these species’ abundances with salinity suggested the possibility of their transport by Italian river-influenced coastal waters towards the eastern Croatian coast during the summer season and under stratified conditions. Toxicity events occurred more frequently in the more eutrophicated northern Adriatic Sea than in the southern Adriatic Sea and mostly succeeded the rainfall periods. Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxin profile analyses identified okadaic acid and yessotoxin as the main DSP toxins occurring in Croatian waters.
TL;DR: Results confirmed carnivory in bivalves, both from natural and cultured populations, but cultured species had higher numbers of zooplankters than those living on the seabed, and show that mussels impact the availability of natural spat.
Abstract: This study provides information about differences in composition of ingested zooplankton amongst bivalve species coexisting in the same area in a period from May 2009 to December 2010. The study was conducted at the Mali Ston Bay (42°51′ N, 17°40′ E)—the most important bivalve aquaculture area in the eastern Adriatic Sea. Stomach content analysis was performed on cultured species—Ostrea edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, and commercially important bivalve species from their natural environment—Modiolus barbatus and Arca noae. Results confirmed carnivory in bivalves, both from natural and cultured populations, but cultured species had higher numbers of zooplankters than those living on the seabed. The most abundant taxa were bivalve larvae, followed by tintinnids, copepods, unidentified eggs and gastropod larvae. Recorded numbers of bivalve larvae in M. galloprovincialis stomach were the highest so far reported and show that mussels impact the availability of natural spat.
TL;DR: Significant correlation determined between Acartia clausi and oligotrich ciliates indicates predator–prey relationship and the importance of the ciliate community in the energy transfer through the trophic web of this area.
Abstract: Mesozooplankton was sampled during one year in the eutrophicated Vranjic Basin and the influence of environmental variables on its abundance and distribution was analysed. Parallel microzooplankton samples were collected in order to asses trophic relationships within the zooplankton community. Total mesozooplankton abundances were high, exceeding 2 x 104 ind. m-3 in the warmer part of the year, but the biodiversity was low. The annual variability of this assemblage was mostly influenced by temperature. Copepods were dominant among net plankton groups, while ciliates dominated the protozoan community. The key species of the copepod community were Acartia clausi, Oithona nana and Euterpina acutifrons, occurring simultaneously throughout the year. High abundances of small copepod Oithona nana were determined in both meso- and microzooplankton samples, and comparisons of the catches from 125 μ m net and 5 l Niskin bottles revealed no significant differences between them. Significant correlation determined between Acartia clausi and oligotrich ciliates indicates predator-pray relationship and the importance of the ciliate community in the energy transfer through the trophic web of this area.
01 Jan 1944
TL;DR: The only previously known species of Myrsidea from bulbuls, M. warwicki ex Ixos philippinus, is redescribed and sixteen new species are described; they and their type hosts are described.
Abstract: We redescribe the only previously known species of Myrsidea from bulbuls, M. pycnonoti Eichler. Sixteen new species are described; they and their type hosts are: M. phillipsi ex Pycnonotus goiavier goiavier (Scopoli), M. gieferi ex P. goiavier suluensis Mearns, M. kulpai ex P. flavescens Blyth, M. finlaysoni ex P. finlaysoni Strickland, M. kathleenae ex P. cafer (L.), M. warwicki ex Ixos philippinus (J. R. Forster), M. mcclurei ex Microscelis amaurotis (Temminck), M. zeylanici ex P. zeylanicus (Gmelin), M. plumosi ex P. plumosus Blyth, M. eutiloti ex P. eutilotus (Jardine and Selby), M. adamsae ex P. urostictus (Salvadori), M. ochracei ex Criniger ochraceus F. Moore, M. borbonici ex Hypsipetes borbonicus (J. R. Forster), M. johnsoni ex P. atriceps (Temminck), M. palmai ex C. ochraceus, and M. claytoni ex P. eutilotus. A key is provided for the identification of these 17 species.
TL;DR: An overview of the plankton studies conducted during the last 25 years in the epipelagic offshore waters of the Mediterranean Sea is presented, finding a "multivorous web" is shown by the great variety of feeding modes and preferences and by the significant and simultaneous grazing impact on phytoplankton and ciliates by mesozooplankon.
Abstract: . We present an overview of the plankton studies conducted during the last 25 years in the epipelagic offshore waters of the Mediterranean Sea. This quasi-enclosed sea is characterized by a rich and complex physical dynamics with distinctive traits, especially in regard to the thermohaline circulation. Recent investigations have basically confirmed the long-recognised oligotrophic nature of this sea, which increases along both the west-east and the north-south directions. Nutrient availability is low, especially for phosphorous (N:P up to 60), though this limitation may be buffered by inputs from highly populated coasts and from the atmosphere. Phytoplankton biomass, as chl a, generally displays low values (less than 0.2 μg chl a l−1) over large areas, with a modest late winter increase. A large bloom (up to 3 μg l−1) is observed throughout the late winter and spring exclusively in the NW area. Relatively high biomass values are recorded in fronts and cyclonic gyres. A deep chlorophyll maximum is a permanent feature for the whole basin, except during the late winter mixing. It is found at increasingly greater depths ranging from 30 m in the Alboran Sea to 120 m in the easternmost Levantine basin. Primary production reveals a west-east decreasing trend and ranges between 59 and 150 g C m−2 y−1 (in situ measurements). Overall, the basin is largely dominated by small autotrophs, microheterotrophs and egg-carrying copepod species. The microorganisms (phytoplankton, viruses, bacteria, flagellates and ciliates) and zooplankton components reveal a considerable diversity and variability over spatial and temporal scales, although the latter is poorly studied. Examples are the wide diversity of dinoflagellates and coccolithophores, the multifarious role of diatoms or picoeukaryotes, and the distinct seasonal or spatial patterns of the species-rich copepod genera or families which dominate the basin. Major dissimilarities between western and eastern basins have been highlighted in species composition of phytoplankton and mesozooplankton, but also in the heterotrophic microbial components and in their relationships. Superimposed to these longitudinal differences, a pronounced biological heterogeneity is also observed in areas hosting deep convection, fronts, cyclonic and anti-cyclonic gyres or eddies. In such areas, the intermittent nutrient enrichment promotes a switching between a small-sized microbial community and diatom-dominated populations. A classical food web readily substitutes the microbial food web in these cases. These switches, likely occurring within a continuum of trophic pathways, may greatly increase the flux towards higher trophic levels, in spite of the apparent heterotrophy. Basically, the microbial system seems to be both bottom-up and top-down controlled. A "multivorous web" is shown by the great variety of feeding modes and preferences and by the significant and simultaneous grazing impact on phytoplankton and ciliates by mesozooplankton.
TL;DR: A general insight into the ecology of these species is provided through a revision of the information available in an environmental context and in relation to exploitation features to point out the gaps in knowledge necessary to understand the dynamics of small pelagic fish in the region.
Abstract: In the NW Mediterranean Sea, anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) are the most important small pelagic fish in terms of biomass and commercial interest. Round sardinella (Sardinella aurita) and Sprat (Sprattus sprattus) are also present in this region. This paper provides a general insight into the ecology of these species through a revision of the information available in an environmental context and in relation to exploitation features. Spawning habitats of the two main species, anchovy and sardine, are clearly differentiated based on water mass characteristics reducing the overlapping between their early developmental stages. Larval distribution is also related to major productivity mechanisms of the respective spawning seasons. In spite of the different environmental regimes in which larvae of these species develop, growth rates are fairly similar. Trophic modeling highlights the important ecological role of small pelagic fish in North Western Mediterranean ecosystems. This review points out the gaps in knowledge necessary to understand the dynamics of small pelagic fish in the region and to progress towards a precautionary and adaptive management.
TL;DR: Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L−1) as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L−1). They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins), and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated.
TL;DR: In this article, a trophic mass-balance model was developed to characterise the food web structure and functioning of the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea and to quantify the ecosystem impacts of fishing during the 1990s.
Abstract: A trophic mass-balance model was developed to characterise the food web structure and functioning of the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea and to quantify the ecosystem impacts of fishing during the 1990s. Forty functional groups were described, including target and non-target fish and invertebrate groups, and three detritus groups (natural detritus, discards and by-catch of cetaceans and marine turtles). Results highlighted that there was an important coupling between pelagic–benthic production of plankton, benthic invertebrates and detritus. Organisms located at low and medium trophic levels, (i.e. benthic invertebrates, zooplankton and anchovy), as well as dolphins, were identified as keystone groups of the ecosystem. Jellyfish were an important element in terms of consumption and production of trophic flows within the ecosystem. The analysis of trophic flows of zooplankton and detritus groups indirectly underlined the importance of the microbial food web in the Adriatic Sea. Fishing activities inflicted notable impacts on the ecosystem during the 1990s, with a high gross efficiency of the fishery, a high consumption of fishable production, high exploitation rates for various target and non target species, a low trophic level of the catch and medium values of primary production required to sustain the fishery. Moreover, the analysis of Odum's ecological indicators highlighted that the ecosystem was in a low-medium developmental stage. Bottom trawling ( Strascico ), mid-water trawling ( Volante ) and beam trawling ( Rapido ) fleets had the highest impacts on both target and non target ecological groups. On the contrary, purse seining ( Lampara ) showed medium to low impacts on the ecosystem; cetaceans, marine turtles and sea birds were not significantly involved in competition with fishing activity.