Bio: Ottavia Barbieri is an academic researcher from University of Genoa. The author has contributed to research in topics: DLX5 & Cellular differentiation. The author has an hindex of 30, co-authored 66 publications receiving 2904 citations. Previous affiliations of Ottavia Barbieri include International Institute of Minnesota & National Cancer Research Institute.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The defects observed in Dlx5-/- mutant animals suggest multiple and independent roles of this gene in the patterning of the branchial arches, in the morphogenesis of the vestibular organ and in osteoblast differentiation.
Abstract: The Dlx5 gene encodes a Distal-less-related DNA-binding homeobox protein first expressed during early embryonic development in anterior regions of the mouse embryo. In later developmental stages, it appears in the branchial arches, the otic and olfactory placodes and their derivatives, in restricted brain regions, in all extending appendages and in all developing bones. We have created a null allele of the mouse Dlx5 gene by replacing exons I and II with the E. coli lacZ gene. Heterozygous mice appear normal. Beta-galactosidase activity in Dlx5+/− embryos and newborn animals reproduces the known pattern of expression of the gene. Homozygous mutants die shortly after birth with a swollen abdomen. They present a complex phenotype characterised by craniofacial abnormalities affecting derivatives of the first four branchial arches, severe malformations of the vestibular organ, a delayed ossification of the roof of the skull and abnormal osteogenesis. No obvious defect was observed in the patterning of limbs and other appendages. The defects observed in Dlx5−/− mutant animals suggest multiple and independent roles of this gene in the patterning of the branchial arches, in the morphogenesis of the vestibular organ and in osteoblast differentiation.
TL;DR: This finding supports the notion that Dlx genes are homeotic genes associated with morphological novelty in the vertebrate lineage and first homeotic‐like transformation found in this Hox‐free region after gene inactivation.
Abstract: In modern vertebrates upper and lower jaws are morphologically different. Both develop from the mandibular arch, which is colonized mostly by Hox-free neural crest cells. Here we show that simultaneous inactivation of the murine homeobox genes Dlx5 and Dlx6 results in the transformation of the lower jaw into an upper jaw and in symmetry of the snout. This is the first homeotic-like transformation found in this Hox-free region after gene inactivation. A suggestive parallel comes from the paleontological record, which shows that in primitive vertebrates both jaws are essentially mirror images of each other. Our finding supports the notion that Dlx genes are homeotic genes associated with morphological novelty in the vertebrate lineage.
TL;DR: Chronic inflammation can induce a metastasis prone phenotype in prostate cancer cells by maintaining a positive proinflammatory and prometastatic feedback loop between NFκB and CXCL1/-2, and curcumin disrupts this feedback loop by the inhibition ofNFκB signaling leading to reduced metastasis formation in vivo.
Abstract: In America and Western Europe, prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death in men. Emerging evidence suggests that chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for the development and metastatic progression of prostate cancer. We previously reported that the chemopreventive polyphenol curcumin inhibits the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines CXCL1 and -2 leading to diminished formation of breast cancer metastases. In this study, we analyze the effects of curcumin on prostate carcinoma growth, apoptosis and metastasis. We show that curcumin inhibits translocation of NFκB to the nucleus through the inhibition of the IκB-kinase (IKKβ, leading to stabilization of the inhibitor of NFκB, IκBα, in PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells. Inhibition of NFκB activity reduces expression of CXCL1 and -2 and abolishes the autocrine/paracrine loop that links the two chemokines to NFκB. The combination of curcumin with the synthetic IKKβ inhibitor, SC-541, shows no additive or synergistic effects indicating that the two compounds share the target. Treatment of the cells with curcumin and siRNA-based knockdown of CXCL1 and -2 induce apoptosis, inhibit proliferation and downregulate several important metastasis-promoting factors like COX2, SPARC and EFEMP. In an orthotopic mouse model of hematogenous metastasis, treatment with curcumin inhibits statistically significantly formation of lung metastases. In conclusion, chronic inflammation can induce a metastasis prone phenotype in prostate cancer cells by maintaining a positive proinflammatory and prometastatic feedback loop between NFκB and CXCL1/-2. Curcumin disrupts this feedback loop by the inhibition of NFκB signaling leading to reduced metastasis formation in vivo.
TL;DR: Findings demonstrate a role of IL‐8 in ARG1 exocytosis by PMNs and indicate that, due at least in part to IL•8 secreted by NSCLC cells, PMNs infiltrating NSCLCs release ARG 1, which could contribute to local immune suppression.
Abstract: Arginase 1 (ARG1) inhibits T-cell proliferation by degrading extracellular arginine, which results in decreased responsiveness of T cells to CD3/TCR stimulation. In humans, ARG1 is stored in inactive form within granules of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and gets activated on release. We studied the role of PMNs-related ARG1 activity in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSLC), in which tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes showed reduced proliferation in response to CD3/TCR triggering. Patients with NSCLC had increased ARG1 plasma levels as compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry showed that tumor-infiltrating PMNs display reduced intracellular ARG1, in comparison to intravascular or peritumoral PMNs, suggesting a role of tumor microenvironment in ARG1 release. Indeed, supernatants of NSCLC cell lines induced exocytosis of ARG1 from PMNs. All (4/4) NSCLC cell lines and all (7/7) CD14- cell samples from NSCLC expressed interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA, whereas TNFalpha mRNA was expressed by 1 cell line and by 2 tumor specimens. Furthermore, all NSCLC cell lines secreted immunoreactive IL-8, albeit at different levels. IL-8 was as effective as TNFalpha in triggering ARG1 release and the 2 cytokines acted synergistically. Secreted ARG1 was biologically active and catabolized extracellular arginine. The supernatant of IL-8 gene-silenced NSCLC cells did not mediate ARG1 release by PMNs. Altogether these findings demonstrate a role of IL-8 in ARG1 exocytosis by PMNs and indicate that, due at least in part to IL-8 secreted by NSCLC cells, PMNs infiltrating NSCLC release ARG1. This phenomenon could contribute to local immune suppression.
TL;DR: The effects of Curcumin on miRNA expression and its correlation to the anti‐tumorigenic properties of this natural occurring polyphenol are analyzed.
Abstract: Chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for the development and metastatic progression of cancer. We have previously reported that the chemopreventive polyphenol Curcumin inhibits the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines CXCL1 and -2 leading to diminished formation of breast and prostate cancer metastases. In the present study, we have analyzed the effects of Curcumin on miRNA expression and its correlation to the anti-tumorigenic properties of this natural occurring polyphenol. Using microarray miRNA expression analyses, we show here that Curcumin modulates the expression of a series of miRNAs, including miR181b, in metastatic breast cancer cells. Interestingly, we found that miR181b down-modulates CXCL1 and -2 through a direct binding to their 3′-UTR. Overexpression or inhibition of miR181b in metastatic breast cancer cells has a significant impact on CXCL1 and -2 and is required for the effect of Curcumin on these two cytokines. miR181b also mediates the effects of Curcumin on inhibition of proliferation and invasion as well as induction of apoptosis. Importantly, over-expression of miR181b in metastatic breast cancer cells inhibits metastasis formation in vivo in immunodeficient mice. Finally, we demonstrated that Curcumin up-regulates miR181b and down-regulates CXCL1 and -2 in cells isolated from several primary human breast cancers. Taken together, these data show that Curcumin provides a simple bridge to bring metastamir modulation into the clinic, placing it in a primary and tertiary preventive, as well as a therapeutic, setting.
01 Jan 1999
TL;DR: Caspases, a family of cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases, are prominent among the death proteases as discussed by the authors, and they play critical roles in initiation and execution of this process.
Abstract: ■ Abstract Apoptosis is a genetically programmed, morphologically distinct form of cell death that can be triggered by a variety of physiological and pathological stimuli. Studies performed over the past 10 years have demonstrated that proteases play critical roles in initiation and execution of this process. The caspases, a family of cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases, are prominent among the death proteases. Caspases are synthesized as relatively inactive zymogens that become activated by scaffold-mediated transactivation or by cleavage via upstream proteases in an intracellular cascade. Regulation of caspase activation and activity occurs at several different levels: ( a) Zymogen gene transcription is regulated; ( b) antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family and other cellular polypeptides block proximity-induced activation of certain procaspases; and ( c) certain cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAPs) can bind to and inhibit active caspases. Once activated, caspases cleave a variety of intracellular polypeptides, including major structural elements of the cytoplasm and nucleus, components of the DNA repair machinery, and a number of protein kinases. Collectively, these scissions disrupt survival pathways and disassemble important architectural components of the cell, contributing to the stereotypic morphological and biochemical changes that characterize apoptotic cell death.
TL;DR: Comparing different types of collective migration at the molecular and cellular level reveals a common mechanistic theme between developmental and cancer research.
Abstract: The collective migration of cells as a cohesive group is a hallmark of the tissue remodelling events that underlie embryonic morphogenesis, wound repair and cancer invasion. In such migration, cells move as sheets, strands, clusters or ducts rather than individually, and use similar actin- and myosin-mediated protrusions and guidance by extrinsic chemotactic and mechanical cues as used by single migratory cells. However, cadherin-based junctions between cells additionally maintain 'supracellular' properties, such as collective polarization, force generation, decision making and, eventually, complex tissue organization. Comparing different types of collective migration at the molecular and cellular level reveals a common mechanistic theme between developmental and cancer research.
TL;DR: Research data show that more resistant stem cells than common cancer cells exist in cancer patients, and to identify unrecognized differences between cancer stem cells and cancer cells might be able to develop effective classification, diagnose and treat for cancer.
Abstract: Stem cells are defined as cells able to both extensively self-renew and differentiate into progenitors. Research data show that more resistant stem cells than common cancer cells exist in cancer patients.To identify unrecognized differences between cancer stem cells and cancer cells might be able to develope effective classification,diagnose and treat ment for cancer.
TL;DR: For example, the authors mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body.
Abstract: Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body We find that few genes are truly 'housekeeping', whereas many mammalian promoters are composite entities composed of several closely separated TSSs, with independent cell-type-specific expression profiles TSSs specific to different cell types evolve at different rates, whereas promoters of broadly expressed genes are the most conserved Promoter-based expression analysis reveals key transcription factors defining cell states and links them to binding-site motifs The functions of identified novel transcripts can be predicted by coexpression and sample ontology enrichment analyses The functional annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5) project provides comprehensive expression profiles and functional annotation of mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptomes with wide applications in biomedical research
TL;DR: The role of the principal growth factors and transcription factors affecting different processes of skeletal development, chondrogenesis, joint formation, and osteogenesis are addressed and the genetic cascade leading to cell differentiation is presented.
Abstract: In the last ten years, we have made considerable progress in our genetic and molecular understanding of all aspects of skeletal development, chondrogenesis, joint formation, and osteogenesis. This review addresses the role of the principal growth factors and transcription factors affecting these different processes and presents, in several cases, the genetic cascade leading to cell differentiation.