Author

# P.V. de Souza

Bio: P.V. de Souza is an academic researcher from IBM. The author has contributed to research in topics: Hidden Markov model & Vocabulary. The author has an hindex of 20, co-authored 27 publications receiving 3337 citations.

##### Papers

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: A method for estimating the parameters of hidden Markov models of speech is described and recognition results are presented comparing this method with maximum likelihood estimation.

Abstract: A method for estimating the parameters of hidden Markov models of speech is described. Parameter values are chosen to maximize the mutual information between an acoustic observation sequence and the corresponding word sequence. Recognition results are presented comparing this method with maximum likelihood estimation.

921 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: Algorithms are presented for automatically constructing a binary decision tree designed to estimate the probability that a given word will be the next word uttered, which is compared to an equivalent trigram model and shown to be superior.

Abstract: The problem of predicting the next word a speaker will say, given the words already spoken; is discussed. Specifically, the problem is to estimate the probability that a given word will be the next word uttered. Algorithms are presented for automatically constructing a binary decision tree designed to estimate these probabilities. At each node of the tree there is a yes/no question relating to the words already spoken, and at each leaf there is a probability distribution over the allowable vocabulary. Ideally, these nodal questions can take the form of arbitrarily complex Boolean expressions, but computationally cheaper alternatives are also discussed. Some results obtained on a 5000-word vocabulary with a tree designed to predict the next word spoken from the preceding 20 words are included. The tree is compared to an equivalent trigram model and shown to be superior. >

444 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: A description is presented of the authors' current research on automatic speech recognition of continuously read sentences from a naturally-occurring corpus: office correspondence, which combines features from their current isolated-word recognition system and from their previously developed continuous-speech recognition system.

Abstract: A description is presented of the authors' current research on automatic speech recognition of continuously read sentences from a naturally-occurring corpus: office correspondence. The recognition system combines features from their current isolated-word recognition system and from their previously developed continuous-speech recognition system. It consists of an acoustic processor, an acoustic channel model, a language model, and a linguistic decoder. Some new features in the recognizer relative to the isolated-word speech recognition system include the use of a fast match to prune rapidly to a manageable number the candidates considered by the detailed match, multiple pronunciations of all function words, and modeling of interphone coarticulatory behavior. The authors recorded training and test data from a set of ten male talkers. The perplexity of the test sentences was found to be 93; none of sentences was part of the data used to generate the language model. Preliminary (speaker-dependent) recognition results on these talkers yielded an average word error rate of 11.0%. >

251 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: An automatic technique for constructing Markov word models is described and results are included of experiments with speaker-dependent and speaker-independent models on several isolated-word recognition tasks.

Abstract: The Speech Recognition Group at IBM Research has developed a real-time, isolated-word speech recognizer called Tangora, which accepts natural English sentences drawn from a vocabulary of 20000 words. Despite its large vocabulary, the Tangora recognizer requires only about 20 minutes of speech from each new user for training purposes. The accuracy of the system and its ease of training are largely attributable to the use of hidden Markov models in its acoustic match component. An automatic technique for constructing Markov word models is described and results are included of experiments with speaker-dependent and speaker-independent models on several isolated-word recognition tasks. >

245 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: The authors explore the trade-off between packing information into sequences of feature vectors and being able to model them accurately and investigate a method of parameter estimation which is designed to cope with inaccurate modeling assumptions.

Abstract: The acoustic-modelling problem in automatic speech recognition is examined from an information theoretic point of view. This problem is to design a speech-recognition system which can extract from the speech waveform as much information as possible about the corresponding word sequence. The information extraction process is factored into two steps: a signal-processing step which converts a speech waveform into a sequence of informative acoustic feature vectors, and a step which models such a sequence. The authors are primarily concerned with the use of hidden Markov models to model sequences of feature vectors which lie in a continuous space. They explore the trade-off between packing information into such sequences and being able to model them accurately. The difficulty of developing accurate models of continuous-parameter sequences is addressed by investigating a method of parameter estimation which is designed to cope with inaccurate modeling assumptions. >

207 citations

##### Cited by

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Bell Labs

^{1}, École Normale Supérieure^{2}, AT&T^{3}, École Polytechnique de Montréal^{4}, Alcatel-Lucent^{5}TL;DR: In this article, a graph transformer network (GTN) is proposed for handwritten character recognition, which can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters.

Abstract: Multilayer neural networks trained with the back-propagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradient based learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradient-based learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters, with minimal preprocessing. This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task. Convolutional neural networks, which are specifically designed to deal with the variability of 2D shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques. Real-life document recognition systems are composed of multiple modules including field extraction, segmentation recognition, and language modeling. A new learning paradigm, called graph transformer networks (GTN), allows such multimodule systems to be trained globally using gradient-based methods so as to minimize an overall performance measure. Two systems for online handwriting recognition are described. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of global training, and the flexibility of graph transformer networks. A graph transformer network for reading a bank cheque is also described. It uses convolutional neural network character recognizers combined with global training techniques to provide record accuracy on business and personal cheques. It is deployed commercially and reads several million cheques per day.

42,067 citations

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18 Nov 2016

TL;DR: Deep learning as mentioned in this paper is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts, and it is used in many applications such as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames.

Abstract: Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames. Finally, the book offers research perspectives, covering such theoretical topics as linear factor models, autoencoders, representation learning, structured probabilistic models, Monte Carlo methods, the partition function, approximate inference, and deep generative models. Deep Learning can be used by undergraduate or graduate students planning careers in either industry or research, and by software engineers who want to begin using deep learning in their products or platforms. A website offers supplementary material for both readers and instructors.

38,208 citations

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an overview of the basic theory of hidden Markov models (HMMs) as originated by L.E. Baum and T. Petrie (1966) and give practical details on methods of implementation of the theory along with a description of selected applications of HMMs to distinct problems in speech recognition.

Abstract: This tutorial provides an overview of the basic theory of hidden Markov models (HMMs) as originated by L.E. Baum and T. Petrie (1966) and gives practical details on methods of implementation of the theory along with a description of selected applications of the theory to distinct problems in speech recognition. Results from a number of original sources are combined to provide a single source of acquiring the background required to pursue further this area of research. The author first reviews the theory of discrete Markov chains and shows how the concept of hidden states, where the observation is a probabilistic function of the state, can be used effectively. The theory is illustrated with two simple examples, namely coin-tossing, and the classic balls-in-urns system. Three fundamental problems of HMMs are noted and several practical techniques for solving these problems are given. The various types of HMMs that have been studied, including ergodic as well as left-right models, are described. >

21,819 citations

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TL;DR: This article provides an overview of progress and represents the shared views of four research groups that have had recent successes in using DNNs for acoustic modeling in speech recognition.

Abstract: Most current speech recognition systems use hidden Markov models (HMMs) to deal with the temporal variability of speech and Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to determine how well each state of each HMM fits a frame or a short window of frames of coefficients that represents the acoustic input. An alternative way to evaluate the fit is to use a feed-forward neural network that takes several frames of coefficients as input and produces posterior probabilities over HMM states as output. Deep neural networks (DNNs) that have many hidden layers and are trained using new methods have been shown to outperform GMMs on a variety of speech recognition benchmarks, sometimes by a large margin. This article provides an overview of this progress and represents the shared views of four research groups that have had recent successes in using DNNs for acoustic modeling in speech recognition.

9,091 citations

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01 Jan 2000

TL;DR: This book takes an empirical approach to language processing, based on applying statistical and other machine-learning algorithms to large corpora, to demonstrate how the same algorithm can be used for speech recognition and word-sense disambiguation.

Abstract: From the Publisher:
This book takes an empirical approach to language processing, based on applying statistical and other machine-learning algorithms to large corpora.Methodology boxes are included in each chapter. Each chapter is built around one or more worked examples to demonstrate the main idea of the chapter. Covers the fundamental algorithms of various fields, whether originally proposed for spoken or written language to demonstrate how the same algorithm can be used for speech recognition and word-sense disambiguation. Emphasis on web and other practical applications. Emphasis on scientific evaluation. Useful as a reference for professionals in any of the areas of speech and language processing.

3,794 citations