Bio: Paola Bernabei is an academic researcher from University of Turin. The author has contributed to research in topics: T cell & Apoptosis. The author has an hindex of 18, co-authored 27 publications receiving 1594 citations.
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: It is concluded that the surface expression of IFN‐γR2 determines whether a cell stimulated by IFn‐γ undergoes proliferation or apoptosis.
Abstract: The heterodimeric interferon (IFN)-gamma receptor (IFN-gammaR) is formed of two chains. Here we show that the binding chain (IFN-gammaR1) was highly expressed on the membranes of T, B, and myeloid cells. Conversely, the transducing chain (IFN-gammaR2) was highly expressed on the surfaces of myeloid cells, moderately expressed on B cells, and poorly expressed on the surfaces of T cells. Differential cell membrane expression of IFN-gammaR2 determined the number of receptor complexes that transduced the IFN-gamma signal and resulted in a different response to IFN-gamma. After IFN-gamma stimulation, high IFN-gammaR2 membrane expression induced rapid activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1) and high levels of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), which then triggered the apoptotic program. By contrast, low cell membrane expression resulted in slow activation of STAT-1, lower levels of IRF-1, and induction of proliferation. Because the forced expression of IFN-gammaR2 on T cells switched their response to IFN-gamma from proliferative to apoptotic, we concluded that the surface expression of IFN-gammaR2 determines whether a cell stimulated by IFN-gamma undergoes proliferation or apoptosis.
TL;DR: NO is identified as one of the environmental factors that critically govern the response of T cells to IFN-gamma, by inducing the overexpression of IFN -gammaR chains, which decides whether IFn-Gamma promotes cell proliferation or the induction of apoptosis.
Abstract: Human normal and malignant T cells cease to proliferate, down-modulate Bcl-2 expression, and undergo apoptosis when cultured in the presence of NO-donor compounds (sodium nitroprusside and NOC12) for 48 h. At 72 h, cells that evade apoptosis start to proliferate again, overexpress both chains of the IFN-gammaR, and thus become susceptible to apoptosis in the presence of IFN-gamma. By contrast, in the presence of IFN-gamma, no apoptosis, but an increase of proliferation was displayed by control cultures of T cells not exposed to NO and not overexpressing IFN-gammaR chains. The NO-induced cell surface overexpression of IFN-gammaR chains did not affect the transduction of IFN-gamma-mediated signals, as shown by the expression of the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1). However, transduction of these signals was quantitatively modified, because IFN-gamma induces enhanced levels of caspase-1 effector death in NO-treated cells. These findings identify NO as one of the environmental factors that critically govern the response of T cells to IFN-gamma. By inducing the overexpression of IFN-gammaR chains, NO decides whether IFN-gamma promotes cell proliferation or the induction of apoptosis.
TL;DR: A correlation exists between differential expression of the IFN-gamma R beta-chain and the delivery by IFN -gamma of proliferative or apoptotic signals.
Abstract: To find out how physiologically secreted IFN-gamma controls either the proliferation or the apoptosis of human T lymphocytes, the kinetics of expression of the alpha- and beta-chains of its receptor (IFN-gamma R) were sequentially followed on T lymphocytes first activated with PHA and then cultured in the presence of IL-2, and related to the kinetics of expression of Fas, Bcl-2, and IL-2R p55 chain. Both IFN-gamma R chains were poorly expressed on the membrane of resting T lymphocytes. Following their stimulation with PHA, IFN-gamma R alpha but not IFN gamma R beta-chain up-modulated before T lymphocyte entry into the S phase, and then IFN-gamma R alpha down-modulated when they passed through the S and G2/M. The ensuing proliferative response was inhibited by an anti-IFN-gamma R alpha mAb that impeded the binding of IFN-gamma. When PHA-activated T lymphoblasts were cultured for 16 days with IL-2, IFN-gamma R alpha expression increased, whereas that of the beta-chain remained barely detectable. Fas and Bcl-2 were both highly expressed. When these T lymphoblasts were restimulated by PHA, OKT3, or Staphylococcus enterotoxin beta-pokeweed mitogen, both chains up-modulated and most cells underwent apoptosis in a way apparently independent of Bcl-2, but not of Fas. This apoptosis, too, was prevented by the anti-IFN-gamma R alpha mAb. Physiologically secreted IFN-gamma is thus involved in the activation of resting T lymphocytes and in the apoptosis of reactivated lymphoblasts. However, high expression of IFN-gamma R beta took place when IFN-gamma induced apoptosis, but not when it induced proliferation. In conclusion, a correlation exists between differential expression of the IFN-gamma R beta-chain and the delivery by IFN-gamma of proliferative or apoptotic signals.
TL;DR: Results indicate that activated human Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes express IFN-gammaR alpha- and beta-chains and are both sensitive to signals provided by IFN -gamma, and suggest thatIFN-Gamma is critical for switching off their responses.
Abstract: The mRNA and protein expression of the alpha- and beta-chains of IFN-gammaR were evaluated on a panel of human Th1 and Th2 clones. When cultured in IL-2-conditioned medium, both types of clones expressed mRNA for the alpha- and beta-chains, and both chains were present in the cytoplasm. Membrane expression of the alpha-chain was higher on Th2 than on Th1, whereas the beta-chain was poorly expressed on both types but increased following IL-2 withdrawal or PHA stimulation. In addition, both types of clones overexpressed MHC class I glycoproteins following IFN-gammaR triggering by exogenous IFN-gamma, although the kinetics was slower in Th1, and this exposure induced mRNA for IRF-1. When their TCR was triggered in the absence of APC, Th1 only underwent apoptosis. This activation-induced apoptosis was prevented by blocking of the alpha-chain or by IFN-gamma neutralization. Addition of IFN-gamma triggered the apoptosis of Th2 clones. Apoptosis of both types of clones was mediated by autocrine or exogenous IFN-gamma through the up-regulation of Fas-L expression, since anti-IFN-gammaR alpha mAb inhibited its expression on Th1 and exogenous IFN-gamma increased its expression on Th2. These results indicate that activated human Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes express IFN-gammaR alpha- and beta-chains and are both sensitive to signals provided by IFN-gamma. Data also suggest that IFN-gamma is critical for switching off their responses.
TL;DR: The current understanding of IFN‐γ ligand, receptor, ignal transduction, and cellular effects with a focus on macrophage responses and to a lesser extent, responses from other cell types that influence macrophages function during infection are reviewed.
Abstract: Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) coordinates a diverse array of cellular programs through transcriptional regulation of immunologically relevant genes. This article reviews the current understanding of IFN-gamma ligand, receptor, signal transduction, and cellular effects with a focus on macrophage responses and to a lesser extent, responses from other cell types that influence macrophage function during infection. The current model for IFN-gamma signal transduction is discussed, as well as signal regulation and factors conferring signal specificity. Cellular effects of IFN-gamma are described, including up-regulation of pathogen recognition, antigen processing and presentation, the antiviral state, inhibition of cellular proliferation and effects on apoptosis, activation of microbicidal effector functions, immunomodulation, and leukocyte trafficking. In addition, integration of signaling and response with other cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-4, type I IFNs, and lipopolysaccharide are discussed.
TL;DR: A clonal and recurrent mutation in the JH2 pseudo-kinase domain of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) gene in most (> 80%) polycythaemia vera patients leads to constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation activity that promotes cytokine hypersensitivity and induces erythrocytosis in a mouse model.
Abstract: Myeloproliferative disorders are clonal haematopoietic stem cell malignancies characterized by independency or hypersensitivity of haematopoietic progenitors to numerous cytokines(1,2). The molecular basis of most myeloproliferative disorders is unknown. On the basis of the model of chronic myeloid leukaemia, it is expected that a constitutive tyrosine kinase activity could be at the origin of these diseases. Polycythaemia vera is an acquired myeloproliferative disorder, characterized by the presence of polycythaemia diversely associated with thrombocytosis, leukocytosis and splenomegaly(3). Polycythaemia vera progenitors are hypersensitive to erythropoietin and other cytokines(4,5). Here, we describe a clonal and recurrent mutation in the JH2 pseudo-kinase domain of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) gene in most (>80%) polycythaemia vera patients. The mutation, a valine-to-phenylalanine substitution at amino acid position 617, leads to constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation activity that promotes cytokine hypersensitivity and induces erythrocytosis in a mouse model. As this mutation is also found in other myeloproliferative disorders, this unique mutation will permit a new molecular classification of these disorders and novel therapeutical approaches.
TL;DR: Its striking inter- and intracellular signaling capacity makes it extremely difficult to predict the effect of NOS inhibitors and NO donors, which still hampers therapeutic applications.
Abstract: During the past two decades, nitric oxide (NO) has been recognized as one of the most versatile players in the immune system. It is involved in the pathogenesis and control of infectious diseases, tumors, autoimmune processes and chronic degenerative diseases. Because of its variety of reaction partners (DNA, proteins, low–molecular weight thiols, prosthetic groups, reactive oxygen intermediates), its widespread production (by three different NO synthases (NOS) and the fact that its activity is strongly influenced by its concentration, NO continues to surprise and perplex immunologists. Today, there is no simple, uniform picture of the function of NO in the immune system. Protective and toxic effects of NO are frequently seen in parallel. Its striking inter- and intracellular signaling capacity makes it extremely difficult to predict the effect of NOS inhibitors and NO donors, which still hampers therapeutic applications.
TL;DR: Different strategies employed by tumors to thwart immune responses, including tumor-induced impairment of antigen presentation, the activation of negative costimulatory signals, and the elaboration of immunosuppressive factors are discussed.
Abstract: Despite major advances in understanding the mechanisms leading to tumor immunity, a number of obstacles hinder the successful translation of mechanistic insights into effective tumor immunotherapy. Such obstacles include the ability of tumors to foster a tolerant microenvironment and the activation of a plethora of immunosuppressive mechanisms, which may act in concert to counteract effective immune responses. Here we discuss different strategies employed by tumors to thwart immune responses, including tumor-induced impairment of antigen presentation, the activation of negative costimulatory signals, and the elaboration of immunosuppressive factors. In addition, we underscore the influence of regulatory cell populations that may contribute to this immunosuppressive network; these include regulatory T cells, natural killer T cells, and distinct subsets of immature and mature dendritic cells. The current wealth of preclinical information promises a future scenario in which the synchronized blockade of immunosuppressive mechanisms may be effective in combination with other conventional strategies to overcome immunological tolerance and promote tumor regression.
TL;DR: The wide-ranging biomedical utilities of PLC-derived organoid models in furthering the understanding of liver cancer biology and in developing personalized-medicine approaches for the disease are demonstrated.
Abstract: Human liver cancer research currently lacks in vitro models that can faithfully recapitulate the pathophysiology of the original tumor. We recently described a novel, near-physiological organoid culture system, wherein primary human healthy liver cells form long-term expanding organoids that retain liver tissue function and genetic stability. Here we extend this culture system to the propagation of primary liver cancer (PLC) organoids from three of the most common PLC subtypes: hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and combined HCC/CC (CHC) tumors. PLC-derived organoid cultures preserve the histological architecture, gene expression and genomic landscape of the original tumor, allowing for discrimination between different tumor tissues and subtypes, even after long-term expansion in culture in the same medium conditions. Xenograft studies demonstrate that the tumorogenic potential, histological features and metastatic properties of PLC-derived organoids are preserved in vivo. PLC-derived organoids are amenable for biomarker identification and drug-screening testing and led to the identification of the ERK inhibitor SCH772984 as a potential therapeutic agent for primary liver cancer. We thus demonstrate the wide-ranging biomedical utilities of PLC-derived organoid models in furthering the understanding of liver cancer biology and in developing personalized-medicine approaches for the disease.