Bio: Paola Defilippi is an academic researcher from University of Turin. The author has contributed to research in topics: Integrin & Signal transduction. The author has an hindex of 40, co-authored 103 publications receiving 7607 citations. Previous affiliations of Paola Defilippi include University of Genoa & University of Southern Denmark.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is reported that G-CSF and GM- CSF influence the migration and proliferation of human endothelial cells suggesting that these molecules may act as regulatory signals outside the haematopoietic system.
Abstract: Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) belong to a family of glycoprotidic growth factors required for the survival, growth and differentiation of haematopoietic precursors and which affect the function of circulating mature cells. They are produced by resting or stimulated stromal cells of the haematopoietic microenvironment (fibroblasts and endothelium) and by immunocompetent cells (T cells and monocytes/macrophages). The action of these CSF molecules was thought to be restricted to cells of haematopoietic origin. Here, we report that G-CSF and GM-CSF influence the migration and proliferation of human endothelial cells suggesting that these molecules may act as regulatory signals outside the haematopoietic system.
TL;DR: A new role for αvβ3 integrin is indicated in the activation of an in vitro angiogenic program in endothelial cells by participating in the full activation of VEGFR‐2 triggered by VEGF‐A, which is an importantAngiogenic inducer in tumors, inflammation and tissue regeneration.
Abstract: Interaction between integrin alphavbeta3 and extracellular matrix is crucial for endothelial cells sprouting from capillaries and for angiogenesis. Furthermore, integrin-mediated outside-in signals co-operate with growth factor receptors to promote cell proliferation and motility. To determine a potential regulation of angiogenic inducer receptors by the integrin system, we investigated the interaction between alphavbeta3 integrin and tyrosine kinase vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in human endothelial cells. We report that tyrosine-phosphorylated VEGFR-2 co-immunoprecipitated with beta3 integrin subunit, but not with beta1 or beta5, from cells stimulated with VEGF-A165. VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and mitogenicity induced by VEGF-A165 were enhanced in cells plated on the alphavbeta3 ligand, vitronectin, compared with cells plated on the alpha5beta1 ligand, fibronectin or the alpha2beta1 ligand, collagen. BV4 anti-beta3 integrin mAb, which does not interfere with endothelial cell adhesion to vitronectin, reduced (i) the tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2; (ii) the activation of downstream transductor phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase; and (iii) biological effects triggered by VEGF-A165. These results indicate a new role for alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of an in vitro angiogenic program in endothelial cells. Besides being the most important survival system for nascent vessels by regulating cell adhesion to matrix, alphavbeta3 integrin participates in the full activation of VEGFR-2 triggered by VEGF-A, which is an important angiogenic inducer in tumors, inflammation and tissue regeneration.
TL;DR: It is proposed that EB3-labeled growing microtubule ends regulate the localization of p140Cap, control cortactin function, and modulate actin dynamics within dendritic spines, thus linking dynamic microtubules to spine changes and synaptic plasticity.
Abstract: Dendritic spines are the major sites of excitatory synaptic input, and their morphological changes have been linked to learning and memory processes Here, we report that growing microtubule plus ends decorated by the microtubule tip-tracking protein EB3 enter spines and can modulate spine morphology We describe p140Cap/SNIP, a regulator of Src tyrosine kinase, as an EB3 interacting partner that is predominantly localized to spines and enriched in the postsynaptic density Inhibition of microtubule dynamics, or knockdown of either EB3 or p140Cap, modulates spine shape via regulation of the actin cytoskeleton Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that EB3-binding is required for p140Cap accumulation within spines In addition, we found that p140Cap interacts with Src substrate and F-actin-binding protein cortactin We propose that EB3-labeled growing microtubule ends regulate the localization of p140Cap, control cortactin function, and modulate actin dynamics within dendritic spines, thus linking dynamic microtubules to spine changes and synaptic plasticity
TL;DR: The results demonstrate that integrin‐dependent EGF receptor activation is a novel signaling mechanism involved in cell survival and proliferation in response to extracellular matrix.
Abstract: Adhesion of human primary skin fibroblasts and ECV304 endothelial cells to immobilized matrix proteins, beta1 or alphav integrin antibodies stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. This tyrosine phosphorylation is transiently induced, reaching maximal levels 30 min after adhesion, and it occurs in the absence of receptor ligands. Similar results were observed with EGF receptor-transfected NIH-3T3 cells. Use of a kinase-negative EGF receptor mutant demonstrates that the integrin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation is due to activation of the receptor's intrinsic kinase activity. Integrin-mediated EGF receptor activation leads to Erk-1/MAP kinase induction, as shown by treatment with the specific inhibitor tyrphostin AG1478 and by expression of a dominant-negative EGF receptor mutant. EGF receptor and Erk-1/MAP kinase activation by integrins does not lead per se to cell proliferation, but is important for entry into S phase in response to EGF or serum. EGF receptor activation is also required for extracellular matrix-mediated cell survival. Adhesion-dependent MAP kinase activation and survival are regulated through EGF receptor activation in cells expressing this molecule above a threshold level (5x10(3) receptors per cell). These results demonstrate that integrin-dependent EGF receptor activation is a novel signaling mechanism involved in cell survival and proliferation in response to extracellular matrix.
TL;DR: Data indicate that integrin-mediated adhesion induces assembly of a macromolecular complex containing c-Src and p130Cas and leads to phosphorylation of specific EGF receptor tyrosine residues.
Abstract: Integrin-mediated cell adhesion cooperates with growth factor receptors in the control of cell proliferation, cell survival, and cell migration. One mechanism to explain these synergistic effects is the ability of integrins to induce phosphorylation of growth factor receptors, for instance the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Here we define some aspects of the molecular mechanisms regulating integrin-dependent EGF receptor phosphorylation. We show that in the early phases of cell adhesion integrins associate with EGF receptors on the cell membrane in a macromolecular complex including the adaptor protein p130Cas and the c-Src kinase, the latter being required for adhesion-dependent assembly of the macromolecular complex. We also show that the integrin cytoplasmic tail, c-Src kinase, and the p130Cas adaptor protein are required for phosphorylation of EGF receptor in response to integrin-mediated adhesion. We show that integrins induce phosphorylation of EGF receptor on tyrosine residues 845, 1068, 1086, and 1173, but not on residue 1148, a major site of phosphorylation in response to EGF. In addition we find that integrin-mediated adhesion increases the amount of EGF receptor expressed on the cell surface. Therefore these data indicate that integrin-mediated adhesion induces assembly of a macromolecular complex containing c-Src and p130Cas and leads to phosphorylation of specific EGF receptor tyrosine residues.
TL;DR: Reduction of lysyl oxidase-mediated collagen crosslinking prevented MMTV-Neu-induced fibrosis, decreased focal adhesions and PI3K activity, impeded malignancy, and lowered tumor incidence, and data show how collagenCrosslinking can modulate tissue fibrosis and stiffness to force focal adhesion, growth factor signaling and breast malignancies.
Abstract: Tumors are characterized by extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and stiffening. The importance of ECM remodeling to cancer is appreciated; the relevance of stiffening is less clear. We found that breast tumorigenesis is accompanied by collagen crosslinking, ECM stiffening, and increased focal adhesions. Induction of collagen crosslinking stiffened the ECM, promoted focal adhesions, enhanced PI3 kinase (PI3K) activity, and induced the invasion of an oncogene-initiated epithelium. Inhibition of integrin signaling repressed the invasion of a premalignant epithelium into a stiffened, crosslinked ECM and forced integrin clustering promoted focal adhesions, enhanced PI3K signaling, and induced the invasion of a premalignant epithelium. Consistently, reduction of lysyl oxidase-mediated collagen crosslinking prevented MMTV-Neu-induced fibrosis, decreased focal adhesions and PI3K activity, impeded malignancy, and lowered tumor incidence. These data show how collagen crosslinking can modulate tissue fibrosis and stiffness to force focal adhesions, growth factor signaling and breast malignancy.
TL;DR: This review summarizes the results of expression studies that have been performed in rodents, pigs, and humans to localize growth factors and their receptors in skin wounds and reports on genetic studies addressing the functions of endogenous growth factors in the wound repair process.
Abstract: Werner, Sabine, and Richard Grose. Regulation of Wound Healing by Growth Factors and Cytokines. Physiol Rev 83: 835–870, 2003; 10.1152/physrev.00032.2002.—Cutaneous wound healing is a complex proce...
TL;DR: The ability of cells to survey the mechanical properties of their surrounding environment is demonstrated and the possible involvement of both protein tyrosine phosphorylation and myosin-generated cortical forces in this process is suggested.
Abstract: Responses of cells to mechanical properties of the adhesion substrate were examined by culturing normal rat kidney epithelial and 3T3 fibroblastic cells on a collagen-coated polyacrylamide substrate that allows the flexibility to be varied while maintaining a constant chemical environment. Compared with cells on rigid substrates, those on flexible substrates showed reduced spreading and increased rates of motility or lamellipodial activity. Microinjection of fluorescent vinculin indicated that focal adhesions on flexible substrates were irregularly shaped and highly dynamic whereas those on firm substrates had a normal morphology and were much more stable. Cells on flexible substrates also contained a reduced amount of phosphotyrosine at adhesion sites. Treatment of these cells with phenylarsine oxide, a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, induced the formation of normal, stable focal adhesions similar to those on firm substrates. Conversely, treatment of cells on firm substrates with myosin inhibitors 2,3-butanedione monoxime or KT5926 caused the reduction of both vinculin and phosphotyrosine at adhesion sites. These results demonstrate the ability of cells to survey the mechanical properties of their surrounding environment and suggest the possible involvement of both protein tyrosine phosphorylation and myosin-generated cortical forces in this process. Such response to physical parameters likely represents an important mechanism of cellular interaction with the surrounding environment within a complex organism.
TL;DR: Recent advances in understanding of intracellular signal transduction pathways regulated by the integrin family of adhesion receptors are focused on.
Abstract: Adhesive interactions play critical roles in directing the migration, proliferation, and differentiation of cells; aberrations in such interactions can lead to pathological disorders. These adhesive interactions, mediated by cell surface receptors that bind to ligands on adjacent cells or in the extracellular matrix, also regulate intracellular signal transduction pathways that control adhesion-induced changes in cell physiology. Though the extracellular molecular interactions involving many adhesion receptors have been well characterized, the adhesion-dependent intracellular signaling events that regulate these physiological alterations have only begun to be elucidated. This article will focus on recent advances in our understanding of intracellular signal transduction pathways regulated by the integrin family of adhesion receptors.
TL;DR: Clinical developments emphasize the need to identify how integrin antagonists influence the tumour and its microenvironment.
Abstract: The integrin family of cell adhesion receptors regulates a diverse array of cellular functions crucial to the initiation, progression and metastasis of solid tumours. The importance of integrins in several cell types that affect tumour progression has made them an appealing target for cancer therapy. Integrin antagonists, including the alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 inhibitor cilengitide, have shown encouraging activity in Phase II clinical trials and cilengitide is currently being tested in a Phase III trial in patients with glioblastoma. These exciting clinical developments emphasize the need to identify how integrin antagonists influence the tumour and its microenvironment.