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Pascal Borry

Bio: Pascal Borry is an academic researcher from Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. The author has contributed to research in topics: Genetic testing & Medicine. The author has an hindex of 43, co-authored 238 publications receiving 6016 citations. Previous affiliations of Pascal Borry include New York City Law Department & Catholic University of Leuven.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Focusing on the clinical diagnostics setting, this paper is intended to contribute to the discussion and the development of guidelines in this fast-moving field, and provide recommendations for health-care professionals.
Abstract: In recent years, the cost of generating genome information has shown a rapid decline.1, 2 High-throughput genomic technologies make it possible to sequence the whole exome or genome of a person at a price that is affordable for some health-care systems. More services based on these technologies are now becoming available for patients, raising the issue of how to ensure that these are provided appropriately. In order to determine both the clinical utility of genetic testing and assure a high quality of the analysis, the interpretation and communication of the results must be discussed so that patients can receive appropriate advice and genetic testing. The Public and Professional Policy Committee (PPPC) and the Quality Committee of the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) addressed these challenges at a joint workshop in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 2010.3 PPPC also organised workshops in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (January 2011 in collaboration with the EU-funded project TECHGENE, January 2012). A report for the Health Council of the Netherlands served as a background document for the PPPC's reflections.4 Focusing on the clinical diagnostics setting, this paper is intended to contribute to the discussion and the development of guidelines in this fast-moving field, and provide recommendations for health-care professionals. The paper and recommendations were posted on the ESHG website from 20 June to 1 August 2012 for comment by the membership. The final version was approved by the ESHG Board in December 2012.

367 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects.
Abstract: This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non-laboratory aspects such as information and counseling), education of professionals, systematic evaluation of all aspects of prenatal screening, development of better evaluation tools in the light of the aim of the practice, accountability to all stakeholders including children born from screened pregnancies and persons living with the conditions targeted in prenatal screening and promotion of equity of access.

261 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although the guidelines covering presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing of minors agree strongly that medical benefit is the main justification for testing, a lack of consensus remains in the case of childhood‐onset disorders for which preventive or therapeutic measures are not available.
Abstract: The objective of this study is to review ethical and clinical guidelines and position papers concerning the presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing of minors. The databases Medline, Philosopher's Index, Biological Abstracts, Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched using keywords relating to the presymptomatic and predictive testing of children. We also searched the websites of the national bioethics committees indexed on the websites of World Health Organization (WHO) and the German Reference Centre for Ethics in the Life Sciences, the websites of the Human Genetics Societies of various nations indexed on the website of the International Federation of Human Genetics Societies and related links and the national medical associations indexed on the website of the World Medical Association. We retrieved 27 different papers dealing with guidelines or position papers that fulfilled our search criteria. They encompassed the period 1991-2005 and originated from 31 different organizations. The main justification for presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing was the direct benefit to the minor through either medical intervention or preventive measures. If there were no urgent medical reasons, all guidelines recommend postponing testing until the child could consent to testing as a competent adolescent or as an adult. Ambiguity existed for childhood-onset disorders for which preventive or therapeutic measures are not available and for the timing of testing for childhood-onset disorders. Although the guidelines covering presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing of minors agree strongly that medical benefit is the main justification for testing, a lack of consensus remains in the case of childhood-onset disorders for which preventive or therapeutic measures are not available.

222 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in thecontext of existing screening criteria are discussed.
Abstract: This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines.

219 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new and positive climate for empirical approaches has arisen, but the original difficulties have not disappeared; a problematic relationship cannot simply and easily evolve into a perfect interaction.
Abstract: Since its origin, bioethics has attracted the collaboration of few social scientists, and social scientific methods of gathering empirical data have remained unfamiliar to ethicists. Recently, however, the clouded relations between the empirical and normative perspectives on bioethics appear to be changing. Three reasons explain why there was no easy and consistent input of empirical evidence in bioethics. Firstly, interdisciplinary dialogue runs the risk of communication problems and divergent objectives. Secondly, the social sciences were absent partners since the beginning of bioethics. Thirdly, the meta-ethical distinction between 'is' and 'ought' created a 'natural' border between the disciplines. Now, bioethics tends to accommodate more empirical research. Three hypotheses explain this emergence. Firstly, dissatisfaction with a foundationalist interpretation of applied ethics created a stimulus to incorporate empirical research in bioethics. Secondly, clinical ethicists became engaged in empirical research due to their strong integration in the medical setting. Thirdly, the rise of the evidence-based paradigm had an influence on the practice of bioethics. However, a problematic relationship cannot simply and easily evolve into a perfect interaction. A new and positive climate for empirical approaches has arisen, but the original difficulties have not disappeared.

208 citations


Cited by
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TL;DR: Reading a book as this basics of qualitative research grounded theory procedures and techniques and other references can enrich your life quality.

13,415 citations

01 Jan 1982
Abstract: Introduction 1. Woman's Place in Man's Life Cycle 2. Images of Relationship 3. Concepts of Self and Morality 4. Crisis and Transition 5. Women's Rights and Women's Judgment 6. Visions of Maturity References Index of Study Participants General Index

7,539 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The objective of this study was to establish a baseline level of confidence that the once-in-a-lifetime implantation trial—Reduce Inappropriate Therapy protocol can be trusted to provide safe and effective treatment for cardiac arrhythmia and stroke-like episodes.
Abstract: 2D : two-dimensional 99mTc-DPD : 99mTechnetium-3,3-diphosphono- 1,2-propanodi-carboxylic acid ACE : angiotensin-converting enzyme AF : atrial fibrillation AL : amyloid light chain AR : aortic regurgitation ARB : angiotensin receptor blocker ATTR : amyloidosis-transthyretin type AV : atrioventricular BiVAD : biventricular assist device BNP : brain natriuretic peptide BPM : Beats per minute CCS : Canadian Cardiovascular Society CFC : cardiofacialcutaneous CHA2DS2-VASc : Congestive Heart failure, hypertension, Age ≥75 (doubled), Diabetes, Stroke (doubled), Vascular disease, Age 65–74, and Sex (female) CMR : cardiac magnetic resonance CRT : cardiac resynchronization therapy CRT-D : cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator CRT-P : Cardiac resynchronization therapy with a pacemaker CT : computed tomography DC : direct current DNA : deoxyribonucleic acid E/A : ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling (E) to mitral peak velocity of late filling (A) E/e’ : ratio of early transmitral flow velocity (E) to early mitral annulus velocity (e’) EACTS : European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery ECG : electrocardiogram EF : ejection fraction EPS : electrophysiological study ESC : European Society of Cardiology FDA : (US) Food and Drug Administration FHL1 : four and a half LIM domains 1 HAS-BLED : hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile INR, elderly (>65 years), drugs/alcohol concomitantly HCM : hypertrophic cardiomyopathy hs-cTnT : high sensitivity cardiac troponin T HTS : high throughput sequencing ICD : implantable cardioverter defibrillator ILR : implantable loop recorder INR : international normalized ratio IUD : intrauterine device LA : left atrium LAMP-2 : lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 LBBB : left bundle branch block LEOPARD : Lentigines, ECG abnormalities, Ocular hypertelorism, Pulmonary stenosis, Abnormal genitalia, Retardation of growth, and sensory-neural Deafness LGE : late gadolinium enhancement LV : left ventricular LVAD : left ventricular assist device LVH : left ventricular hypertrophy LVOTO : left ventricular outlow tract obstruction MADIT-RIT : Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial—Reduce Inappropriate Therapy MAPK : mitogen activated protein kinase MELAS : mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes MERFF : myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibres MRA : mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist MYBPC3 : myosin-binding protein C, cardiac-type MYH7 : myosin-7 (s-myosin heavy chain) MYL3 : myosin light chain 3 NOAC : new oral anticoagulants NSVT : non-sustained ventricular tachycardia NT-proBNP : N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide NYHA : New York Heart Association OAC : oral anticoagulants o.d. : omni die (every day) PC-CMR : phase contrast cardiac magnetic resonance PDE5 : phosphodiesterase type 5 PET : positron emission tomography PRKAG2 : gamma-2 sub-unit of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase RAAS : renin angiotensin aldosterone system RV : right ventricular SAM : systolic anterior motion SCD : sudden cardiac death SAA : septal alcohol ablation S-ICD™ : Subcutaneous lead implantable cardioverter defibrillator SPECT : single photon emission computed tomography SSFP : steady-state free precession SVT : supraventricular tachycardia TOE : transoesophageal echocardiography TNNI3 : troponin I, cardiac muscle TNNT2 : troponin T, cardiac muscle TPM1 : tropomyosin alpha-1 chain TTE : transthoracic echocardiography TTR : transthyretin VF : ventricular fibrillation VKA : vitamin K antagonist VT : ventricular tachycardia WHO : World Health Organization Guidelines summarize and evaluate all available evidence at the time of the writing process, on a particular issue with the aim of assisting health professionals in selecting the best management strategies for an individual patient, with a given condition, taking into account the impact on outcome, as well as the risk-benefit-ratio of particular diagnostic or therapeutic means. Guidelines and recommendations should help the health professionals to make decisions in their daily practice. However, the final decisions concerning an individual patient must be made by the responsible health professional(s) in consultation with the patient and caregiver as appropriate. A great number of Guidelines have been issued in recent years by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) as well as by other societies and organisations. Because of the impact on clinical practice, quality criteria for the development of guidelines have been established in order to make all decisions transparent to the user. The recommendations for formulating and issuing ESC Guidelines can be found on the ESC website (http://www.escardio.org/guidelines-surveys/esc-guidelines/about/Pages/rules-writing.aspx). ESC Guidelines represent the official position of the ESC on a given topic and are regularly updated. Members of this Task Force were selected by the ESC to represent professionals involved with the medical care of patients with this pathology. Selected experts in the field undertook a comprehensive review of the published evidence for management (including diagnosis, treatment, prevention and rehabilitation) of a given condition according to ESC Committee for Practice Guidelines (CPG) policy. A critical evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures was performed including assessment of the risk-benefit-ratio. Estimates of expected health outcomes for larger populations were included, where data exist. The level of evidence and the strength of recommendation of particular management options were weighed and graded according to predefined scales, as outlined in Tables 1 and 2 . The experts of …

3,276 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2020 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007 and 2012 and addresses areas not extensively covered in EPOS2012 such as paediatric CRS and sinus surgery.
Abstract: The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2020 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007 and 2012. The core objective of the EPOS2020 guideline is to provide revised, up-to-date and clear evidence-based recommendations and integrated care pathways in ARS and CRS. EPOS2020 provides an update on the literature published and studies undertaken in the eight years since the EPOS2012 position paper was published and addresses areas not extensively covered in EPOS2012 such as paediatric CRS and sinus surgery. EPOS2020 also involves new stakeholders, including pharmacists and patients, and addresses new target users who have become more involved in the management and treatment of rhinosinusitis since the publication of the last EPOS document, including pharmacists, nurses, specialised care givers and indeed patients themselves, who employ increasing self-management of their condition using over the counter treatments. The document provides suggestions for future research in this area and offers updated guidance for definitions and outcome measurements in research in different settings. EPOS2020 contains chapters on definitions and classification where we have defined a large number of terms and indicated preferred terms. A new classification of CRS into primary and secondary CRS and further division into localized and diffuse disease, based on anatomic distribution is proposed. There are extensive chapters on epidemiology and predisposing factors, inflammatory mechanisms, (differential) diagnosis of facial pain, allergic rhinitis, genetics, cystic fibrosis, aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease, immunodeficiencies, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the relationship between upper and lower airways. The chapters on paediatric acute and chronic rhinosinusitis are totally rewritten. All available evidence for the management of acute rhinosinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps in adults and children is systematically reviewed and integrated care pathways based on the evidence are proposed. Despite considerable increases in the amount of quality publications in recent years, a large number of practical clinical questions remain. It was agreed that the best way to address these was to conduct a Delphi exercise . The results have been integrated into the respective sections. Last but not least, advice for patients and pharmacists and a new list of research needs are included. The full document can be downloaded for free on the website of this journal: http://www.rhinologyjournal.com.

2,853 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is an urgent worldwide need for diagnostic screening together with early and aggressive treatment of this extremely high-risk condition, familial hypercholesterolaemia.
Abstract: Aims The first aim was to critically evaluate the extent to which familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is underdiagnosed and undertreated. The second aim was to provide guidance for screening and treatment of FH, in order to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods and results Of the theoretical estimated prevalence of 1/500 for heterozygous FH, <1% are diagnosed in most countries. Recently, direct screening in a Northern European general population diagnosed approximately 1/200 with heterozygous FH. All reported studies document failure to achieve recommended LDL cholesterol targets in a large proportion of individuals with FH, and up to 13-fold increased risk of CHD. Based on prevalences between 1/500 and 1/200, between 14 and 34 million individuals worldwide have FH. We recommend that children, adults, and families should be screened for FH if a person or family member presents with FH, a plasma cholesterol level in an adult ≥8 mmol/L(≥310 mg/dL) or a child ≥6 mmol/L(≥230 mg/dL), premature CHD, tendon xanthomas, or sudden premature cardiac death. In FH, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets are <3.5 mmol/L(<135 mg/dL) for children, <2.5 mmol/L(<100 mg/dL) for adults, and <1.8 mmol/L(<70 mg/dL) for adults with known CHD or diabetes. In addition to lifestyle and dietary counselling, treatment priorities are (i) in children, statins, ezetimibe, and bile acid binding resins, and (ii) in adults, maximal potent statin dose, ezetimibe, and bile acid binding resins. Lipoprotein apheresis can be offered in homozygotes and in treatment-resistant heterozygotes with CHD. Conclusion Owing to severe underdiagnosis and undertreatment of FH, there is an urgent worldwide need for diagnostic screening together with early and aggressive treatment of this extremely high-risk condition.

2,039 citations