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Patrick du Jardin

Other affiliations: Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech
Bio: Patrick du Jardin is an academic researcher from University of Liège. The author has contributed to research in topics: Oxylipin & Hordeum vulgare. The author has an hindex of 27, co-authored 106 publications receiving 2823 citations. Previous affiliations of Patrick du Jardin include Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The legal and regulatory status of biostimulants are described, with a focus on the EU and the US, and the drivers, opportunities and challenges of their market development are outlined.

1,340 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The EFSA GMO Panel compared the hazards associated with plants produced by cisgenesis and intragenesis with those obtained either by conventional plant breeding techniques or by transgenesis as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The European Commission requested that the EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms deliver a scientific opinion related to risk assessment of cisgenic and intragenic plants. The EFSA GMO Panel considers that the Guidance for risk assessment of food and feed from genetically modified plants and the Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants are applicable for the evaluation of food and feed products derived from cisgenic and intragenic plants and for performing an environmental risk assessment and do not need to be developed further. It can be envisaged that on a case-by-case basis lesser amounts of eventspecific data are needed for the risk assessment. The EFSA GMO Panel compared the hazards associated with plants produced by cisgenesis and intragenesis with those obtained either by conventional plant breeding techniques or by transgenesis. The Panel concludes that similar hazards can be associated with cisgenic and conventionally bred plants, while novel hazards can be associated with intragenic and transgenic plants. The Panel is of the opinion that all of these breeding methods can produce variable frequencies and severities of unintended effects. The frequency of unintended changes may differ between breeding techniques and their occurrence cannot be predicted and needs to be assessed case by case. Independent of the breeding method, undesirable phenotypes are generally removed during selection and testing programmes by breeders. The risks to human and animal health and the environment will depend on exposure factors such as the extent to which the plant is cultivated and consumed.

142 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that root-root interactions mediated by volatile cues deserve more research attention and that both the analytical tools and methods developed to study the ecological roles played by VOCs in interplant signalling aboveground can be adapted to focus on the roles playing by root-emitted V OCs in between- and within-plant signalling.
Abstract: Aboveground, plants release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that act as chemical signals between neighbouring plants. It is now well documented that VOCs emitted by the roots in the plant rhizosphere also play important ecological roles in the soil ecosystem, notably in plant defence because they are involved in interactions between plants, phytophagous pests and organisms of the third trophic level. The roles played by root-emitted VOCs in between- and within-plant signalling, however, are still poorly documented in the scientific literature. Given that (1) plants release volatile cues mediating plant-plant interactions aboveground, (2) roots can detect the chemical signals originating from their neighbours, and (3) roots release VOCs involved in biotic interactions belowground, the aim of this paper is to discuss the roles of VOCs in between- and within-plant signalling belowground. We also highlight the technical challenges associated with the analysis of root-emitted VOCs and the design of experiments targeting volatile-mediated root-root interactions. We conclude that root-root interactions mediated by volatile cues deserve more research attention and that both the analytical tools and methods developed to study the ecological roles played by VOCs in interplant signalling aboveground can be adapted to focus on the roles played by root-emitted VOCs in between- and within-plant signalling.

126 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The differential biochemical response of a plant against insects with distinct feeding behaviours is characterized not only in terms of VOC signature and jasmonic acid profile but also in Terms of their precursors synthesized through the lipoxygenase (LOX)-pathway at the early stage of the plant response.
Abstract: Plant defensive strategies bring into play blends of compounds dependent on the type of attacker and coming from different synthesis pathways. Interest in the field is mainly focused on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and jasmonic acid (JA). By contrast, little is known about the oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as PUFA-hydroperoxides, PUFA-hydroxides, or PUFA-ketones. PUFA-hydroperoxides and their derivatives might be involved in stress response and show antimicrobial activities. Hydroperoxides are also precursors of JA and some volatile compounds. In this paper, the differential biochemical response of a plant against insects with distinct feeding behaviours is characterized not only in terms of VOC signature and JA profile but also in terms of their precursors synthesized through the lipoxygenase (LOX)-pathway at the early stage of the plant response. For this purpose, two leading pests of potato with distinct feeding behaviours were used: the Colorado Potato Beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say), a chewing herbivore, and the Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer), a piercing-sucking insect. The volatile signatures identified clearly differ in function with the feeding behaviour of the attacker and the aphid, which causes the smaller damages, triggers the emission of a higher number of volatiles. In addition, 9-LOX products, which are usually associated with defence against pathogens, were exclusively activated by aphid attack. Furthermore, a correlation between volatiles and JA accumulation and the evolution of their precursors was determined. Finally, the role of the insect itself on the plant response after insect infestation was highlighted.

105 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: Biotechnological techniques to enhance their production potentialities will be discussed along with their implication in a complete bioprocess, from the lipid substrate to the corresponding aldehydic or alcoholic flavors.
Abstract: La voie metabolique de la lipoxygenase chez les plantes : un potentiel pour la production d'aromes naturels a notes vertes. Voie metabolique incontournable du regne vegetal, la voie enzymatique de la lipoxygenase est tres largement decrite dans la litterature. Au sein de celle-ci, les actions combinees de trois enzymes, lipase, lipoxygenase (LOX) et hydroperoxyde lyase (HPL), convertissent un substrat lipidique (acides C18:2 et C18:3) en molecules volatiles a courte chaine. Ces reactions stimulees par l'endommagement des cellules membranaires produisent des composes communement appeles Molecules a Note Verte (MNV) denominant des aldehydes et des alcools en C6 ou en C9. Ces MNVs sont des composes aromatiques largement utilises pour conferer une impression de fraicheur et d'authenticite aux produits alimentaires. Par consequent, des systemes de production competitifs ont ete developpes afin de subvenir a la haute demande en molecules aromatiques naturelles. Des huiles vegetales, choisies selon leur profil en acides gras, sont converties par la LOX de soja et par l'HPL en MNVs naturelles. Cependant, la seconde etape de cette bioconversion presente des rendements faibles causes par l'instabilite de l'HPL et par son inhibition a son propre substrat. Cet article scientifique va brievement decrire les differentes enzymes impliquees dans cette bioconversion selon leurs proprietes chimiques et enzymatiques. Des techniques biotechnologiques d'amelioration de leur potentiel de production seront ensuite exposees dans le cadre d'un processus complet de bioconversion, du substrat lipidique aux aromes correspondants.

98 citations


Cited by
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TL;DR: This review considers the history, new evidence, controversies, and corresponding lessons for modern dietary and policy priorities for cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes mellitus, and identifies major identified themes.
Abstract: Suboptimal nutrition is a leading cause of poor health. Nutrition and policy science have advanced rapidly, creating confusion yet also providing powerful opportunities to reduce the adverse health and economic impacts of poor diets. This review considers the history, new evidence, controversies, and corresponding lessons for modern dietary and policy priorities for cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Major identified themes include the importance of evaluating the full diversity of diet-related risk pathways, not only blood lipids or obesity; focusing on foods and overall diet patterns, rather than single isolated nutrients; recognizing the complex influences of different foods on long-term weight regulation, rather than simply counting calories; and characterizing and implementing evidence-based strategies, including policy approaches, for lifestyle change. Evidence-informed dietary priorities include increased fruits, nonstarchy vegetables, nuts, legumes, fish, vegetable oils, yogurt, and minimally processed whole grains; and fewer red meats, processed (eg, sodium-preserved) meats, and foods rich in refined grains, starch, added sugars, salt, and trans fat. More investigation is needed on the cardiometabolic effects of phenolics, dairy fat, probiotics, fermentation, coffee, tea, cocoa, eggs, specific vegetable and tropical oils, vitamin D, individual fatty acids, and diet-microbiome interactions. Little evidence to date supports the cardiometabolic relevance of other popular priorities: eg, local, organic, grass-fed, farmed/wild, or non-genetically modified. Evidence-based personalized nutrition appears to depend more on nongenetic characteristics (eg, physical activity, abdominal adiposity, gender, socioeconomic status, culture) than genetic factors. Food choices must be strongly supported by clinical behavior change efforts, health systems reforms, novel technologies, and robust policy strategies targeting economic incentives, schools and workplaces, neighborhood environments, and the food system. Scientific advances provide crucial new insights on optimal targets and best practices to reduce the burdens of diet-related cardiometabolic diseases.

1,418 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The legal and regulatory status of biostimulants are described, with a focus on the EU and the US, and the drivers, opportunities and challenges of their market development are outlined.

1,340 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is growing scientific evidence supporting the use of biostimulants as agricultural inputs on diverse plant species, such as increased root growth, enhanced nutrient uptake, and stress tolerance.
Abstract: Plant biostimulants are diverse substances and microorganisms used to enhance plant growth. The global market for biostimulants is projected to increase 12 % per year and reach over $2,200 million by 2018. Despite the growing use of biostimulants in agriculture, many in the scientific community consider biostimulants to be lacking peer-reviewed scientific evaluation. This article describes the emerging definitions of biostimulants and reviews the literature on five categories of biostimulants: i. microbial inoculants, ii. humic acids, iii. fulvic acids, iv. protein hydrolysates and amino acids, and v. seaweed extracts. The large number of publications cited for each category of biostimulants demonstrates that there is growing scientific evidence supporting the use of biostimulants as agricultural inputs on diverse plant species. The cited literature also reveals some commonalities in plant responses to different biostimulants, such as increased root growth, enhanced nutrient uptake, and stress tolerance.

1,305 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An international consortium called `Phaseomics' is formed to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans, which will be instrumental in improving living conditions in deprived regions of Africa and the Americas.
Abstract: Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that `fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modern genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called `Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving living conditions in deprived regions of Africa and the Americas. It will contribute to social equity and sustainable development and enhance inter- and intra-cultural understanding, knowledge and relationships. A major goal of Phaseomics is to generate new common bean varieties that are not only suitable for but also desired by the local farmer and consumer communities. Therefore, the socio-economic dimension of improved bean production and the analysis of factors influencing the acceptance of novel varieties will be an integral part of the proposed research (see Figure 1). Here, we give an overview of the economic and nutritional importance of common beans as a food crop. Priorities and targets of current breeding programmes are outlined, along with ongoing efforts in genomics. Recommendations for an international coordinated effort to join knowledge, facilities and expertise in a variety of scientific undertakings that will contribute to the overall goal of better beans are given. To be rapid and effective, plant breeding programmes (i.e., those that involve crossing two different `parents') rely heavily on molecular `markers'. These genetic landmarks are used to position

1,255 citations