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Author

Paul G. Richardson

Bio: Paul G. Richardson is an academic researcher from Harvard University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Multiple myeloma & Bortezomib. The author has an hindex of 183, co-authored 1533 publication(s) receiving 155912 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Paul G. Richardson include Broomfield Hospital & Dartmouth College.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
Eric S. Lander1, Lauren Linton1, Bruce W. Birren1, Chad Nusbaum1  +245 moreInstitutions (29)
15 Feb 2001-Nature
TL;DR: The results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome are reported and an initial analysis is presented, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the sequence.
Abstract: The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the sequence.

21,023 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Gerald A. Tuskan1, Gerald A. Tuskan2, Stephen P. DiFazio1, Stephen P. DiFazio3, Stefan Jansson4, Joerg Bohlmann5, Igor V. Grigoriev6, Uffe Hellsten6, Nicholas H. Putnam6, Steven G. Ralph5, Stephane Rombauts7, Asaf Salamov6, Jacquie Schein, Lieven Sterck7, Andrea Aerts6, Rishikeshi Bhalerao4, Rishikesh P. Bhalerao8, Damien Blaudez9, Wout Boerjan7, Annick Brun9, Amy M. Brunner10, Victor Busov11, Malcolm M. Campbell12, John E. Carlson13, Michel Chalot9, Jarrod Chapman6, G.-L. Chen1, Dawn Cooper5, Pedro M. Coutinho14, Jérémy Couturier9, Sarah F. Covert15, Quentin C. B. Cronk5, R. Cunningham1, John M. Davis16, Sven Degroeve7, Annabelle Déjardin9, Claude W. dePamphilis13, John C. Detter6, Bill Dirks17, Inna Dubchak6, Inna Dubchak18, Sébastien Duplessis9, Jürgen Ehlting5, Brian E. Ellis5, Karla C Gendler19, David Goodstein6, Michael Gribskov20, Jane Grimwood21, Andrew Groover22, Lee E. Gunter1, Björn Hamberger5, Berthold Heinze, Yrjö Helariutta23, Yrjö Helariutta8, Yrjö Helariutta24, Bernard Henrissat14, D. Holligan15, Robert A. Holt, Wenyu Huang6, N. Islam-Faridi22, Steven J.M. Jones, M. Jones-Rhoades25, Richard A. Jorgensen19, Chandrashekhar P. Joshi11, Jaakko Kangasjärvi23, Jan Karlsson4, Colin T. Kelleher5, Robert Kirkpatrick, Matias Kirst16, Annegret Kohler9, Udaya C. Kalluri1, Frank W. Larimer1, Jim Leebens-Mack15, Jean-Charles Leplé9, Philip F. LoCascio1, Y. Lou6, Susan Lucas6, Francis Martin9, Barbara Montanini9, Carolyn A. Napoli19, David R. Nelson26, C D Nelson22, Kaisa Nieminen23, Ove Nilsson8, V. Pereda9, Gary F. Peter16, Ryan N. Philippe5, Gilles Pilate9, Alexander Poliakov18, J. Razumovskaya1, Paul G. Richardson6, Cécile Rinaldi9, Kermit Ritland5, Pierre Rouzé7, D. Ryaboy18, Jeremy Schmutz21, J. Schrader27, Bo Segerman4, H. Shin, Asim Siddiqui, Fredrik Sterky, Astrid Terry6, Chung-Jui Tsai11, Edward C. Uberbacher1, Per Unneberg, Jorma Vahala23, Kerr Wall13, Susan R. Wessler15, Guojun Yang15, T. Yin1, Carl J. Douglas5, Marco A. Marra, Göran Sandberg8, Y. Van de Peer7, Daniel S. Rokhsar6, Daniel S. Rokhsar17 
15 Sep 2006-Science
Abstract: We report the draft genome of the black cottonwood tree, Populus trichocarpa. Integration of shotgun sequence assembly with genetic mapping enabled chromosome-scale reconstruction of the genome. More than 45,000 putative protein-coding genes were identified. Analysis of the assembled genome revealed a whole-genome duplication event; about 8000 pairs of duplicated genes from that event survived in the Populus genome. A second, older duplication event is indistinguishably coincident with the divergence of the Populus and Arabidopsis lineages. Nucleotide substitution, tandem gene duplication, and gross chromosomal rearrangement appear to proceed substantially more slowly in Populus than in Arabidopsis. Populus has more protein-coding genes than Arabidopsis, ranging on average from 1.4 to 1.6 putative Populus homologs for each Arabidopsis gene. However, the relative frequency of protein domains in the two genomes is similar. Overrepresented exceptions in Populus include genes associated with lignocellulosic wall biosynthesis, meristem development, disease resistance, and metabolite transport.

3,740 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Bortezomib, a member of a new class of anticancer drugs, is active in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma that is refractory to conventional chemotherapy.
Abstract: Background Bortezomib, a boronic acid dipeptide, is a novel proteasome inhibitor that has been shown in preclinical and phase 1 studies to have antimyeloma activity. Methods In this multicenter, open-label, nonrandomized, phase 2 trial, we enrolled 202 patients with relapsed myeloma that was refractory to the therapy they had received most recently. Patients received 1.3 mg of bortezomib per square meter of body-surface area twice weekly for 2 weeks, followed by 1 week without treatment, for up to eight cycles (24 weeks). In patients with a suboptimal response, oral dexamethasone (20 mg daily, on the day of and the day after bortezomib administration) was added to the regimen. The response was evaluated according to the criteria of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation and confirmed by an independent review committee. Results Of 193 patients who could be evaluated, 92 percent had been treated with three or more of the major classes of agents for myeloma, and in 91 percent, the myeloma wa...

2,514 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The disease definition of multiple myeloma is updated to include validated biomarkers in addition to existing requirements of attributable CRAB features (hypercalcaemia, renal failure, anaemia, and bone lesions), and specific metrics that new biomarkers should meet for inclusion in the disease definition are provided.
Abstract: This International Myeloma Working Group consensus updates the disease defi nition of multiple myeloma to include validated biomarkers in addition to existing requirements of attributable CRAB features (hypercalcaemia, renal failure, anaemia, and bone lesions). These changes are based on the identifi cation of biomarkers associated with near inevitable development of CRAB features in patients who would otherwise be regarded as having smouldering multiple myeloma. A delay in application of the label of multiple myeloma and postponement of therapy could be detrimental to these patients. In addition to this change, we clarify and update the underlying laboratory and radiographic variables that fulfi l the criteria for the presence of myeloma-defi ning CRAB features, and the histological and monoclonal protein requirements for the disease diagnosis. Finally, we provide specifi c metrics that new biomarkers should meet for inclusion in the disease defi nition. The International Myeloma Working Group recommends the implementation of these criteria in routine practice and in future clinical trials, and recommends that future studies analyse any diff erences in outcome that might occur as a result of the new disease defi nition.

2,274 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
16 Sep 2011-Cell
Abstract: MYC contributes to the pathogenesis of a majority of human cancers, yet strategies to modulate the function of the c-Myc oncoprotein do not exist. Toward this objective, we have targeted MYC transcription by interfering with chromatin-dependent signal transduction to RNA polymerase, specifically by inhibiting the acetyl-lysine recognition domains (bromodomains) of putative coactivator proteins implicated in transcriptional initiation and elongation. Using a selective small-molecule bromodomain inhibitor, JQ1, we identify BET bromodomain proteins as regulatory factors for c-Myc. BET inhibition by JQ1 downregulates MYC transcription, followed by genome-wide downregulation of Myc-dependent target genes. In experimental models of multiple myeloma, a Myc-dependent hematologic malignancy, JQ1 produces a potent antiproliferative effect associated with cell-cycle arrest and cellular senescence. Efficacy of JQ1 in three murine models of multiple myeloma establishes the therapeutic rationale for BET bromodomain inhibition in this disease and other malignancies characterized by pathologic activation of c-Myc.

2,253 citations


Cited by
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28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The definition and use of family-specific, manually curated gathering thresholds are explained and some of the features of domains of unknown function (also known as DUFs) are discussed, which constitute a rapidly growing class of families within Pfam.
Abstract: Pfam is a widely used database of protein families and domains. This article describes a set of major updates that we have implemented in the latest release (version 24.0). The most important change is that we now use HMMER3, the latest version of the popular profile hidden Markov model package. This software is approximately 100 times faster than HMMER2 and is more sensitive due to the routine use of the forward algorithm. The move to HMMER3 has necessitated numerous changes to Pfam that are described in detail. Pfam release 24.0 contains 11,912 families, of which a large number have been significantly updated during the past two years. Pfam is available via servers in the UK (http://pfam.sanger.ac.uk/), the USA (http://pfam.janelia.org/) and Sweden (http://pfam.sbc.su.se/).

13,724 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
J. Craig Venter1, Mark Raymond Adams1, Eugene W. Myers1, Peter W. Li1  +269 moreInstitutions (12)
16 Feb 2001-Science
TL;DR: Comparative genomic analysis indicates vertebrate expansions of genes associated with neuronal function, with tissue-specific developmental regulation, and with the hemostasis and immune systems are indicated.
Abstract: A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five individuals. Two assembly strategies-a whole-genome assembly and a regional chromosome assembly-were used, each combining sequence data from Celera and the publicly funded genome effort. The public data were shredded into 550-bp segments to create a 2.9-fold coverage of those genome regions that had been sequenced, without including biases inherent in the cloning and assembly procedure used by the publicly funded group. This brought the effective coverage in the assemblies to eightfold, reducing the number and size of gaps in the final assembly over what would be obtained with 5.11-fold coverage. The two assembly strategies yielded very similar results that largely agree with independent mapping data. The assemblies effectively cover the euchromatic regions of the human chromosomes. More than 90% of the genome is in scaffold assemblies of 100,000 bp or more, and 25% of the genome is in scaffolds of 10 million bp or larger. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed 26,588 protein-encoding transcripts for which there was strong corroborating evidence and an additional approximately 12,000 computationally derived genes with mouse matches or other weak supporting evidence. Although gene-dense clusters are obvious, almost half the genes are dispersed in low G+C sequence separated by large tracts of apparently noncoding sequence. Only 1.1% of the genome is spanned by exons, whereas 24% is in introns, with 75% of the genome being intergenic DNA. Duplications of segmental blocks, ranging in size up to chromosomal lengths, are abundant throughout the genome and reveal a complex evolutionary history. Comparative genomic analysis indicates vertebrate expansions of genes associated with neuronal function, with tissue-specific developmental regulation, and with the hemostasis and immune systems. DNA sequence comparisons between the consensus sequence and publicly funded genome data provided locations of 2.1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A random pair of human haploid genomes differed at a rate of 1 bp per 1250 on average, but there was marked heterogeneity in the level of polymorphism across the genome. Less than 1% of all SNPs resulted in variation in proteins, but the task of determining which SNPs have functional consequences remains an open challenge.

11,645 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
14 Jan 2005-Cell
TL;DR: In a four-genome analysis of 3' UTRs, approximately 13,000 regulatory relationships were detected above the estimate of false-positive predictions, thereby implicating as miRNA targets more than 5300 human genes, which represented 30% of the gene set.
Abstract: We predict regulatory targets of vertebrate microRNAs (miRNAs) by identifying mRNAs with conserved complementarity to the seed (nucleotides 2-7) of the miRNA. An overrepresentation of conserved adenosines flanking the seed complementary sites in mRNAs indicates that primary sequence determinants can supplement base pairing to specify miRNA target recognition. In a four-genome analysis of 3' UTRs, approximately 13,000 regulatory relationships were detected above the estimate of false-positive predictions, thereby implicating as miRNA targets more than 5300 human genes, which represented 30% of our gene set. Targeting was also detected in open reading frames. In sum, well over one third of human genes appear to be conserved miRNA targets.

11,029 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Velvet represents a new approach to assembly that can leverage very short reads in combination with read pairs to produce useful assemblies and is in close agreement with simulated results without read-pair information.
Abstract: We have developed a new set of algorithms, collectively called "Velvet," to manipulate de Bruijn graphs for genomic sequence assembly. A de Bruijn graph is a compact representation based on short words (k-mers) that is ideal for high coverage, very short read (25-50 bp) data sets. Applying Velvet to very short reads and paired-ends information only, one can produce contigs of significant length, up to 50-kb N50 length in simulations of prokaryotic data and 3-kb N50 on simulated mammalian BACs. When applied to real Solexa data sets without read pairs, Velvet generated contigs of approximately 8 kb in a prokaryote and 2 kb in a mammalian BAC, in close agreement with our simulated results without read-pair information. Velvet represents a new approach to assembly that can leverage very short reads in combination with read pairs to produce useful assemblies.

8,867 citations