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Paul Hugh Cleverley

Bio: Paul Hugh Cleverley is an academic researcher from Robert Gordon University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Exploratory search & Search analytics. The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 10 publications receiving 82 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: Semistructured qualitative interviews with search staff from the defense, pharmaceutical, and aerospace sectors indicates the potential transferability of the finding that organizations may not know their search expertise levels.
Abstract: No prior research has been identified that investigates the causal factors for workplace exploratory search task performance. The impact of user, task, and environmental factors on user satisfaction and task performance was investigated through a mixed methods study with 26 experienced information professionals using enterprise search in an oil and gas enterprise. Some participants found 75% of high-value items, others found none, with an average of 27%. No association was found between self-reported search expertise and task performance, with a tendency for many participants to overestimate their search expertise. Successful searchers may have more accurate mental models of both search systems and the information space. Organizations may not have effective exploratory search task performance feedback loops, a lack of learning. This may be caused by management bias towards technology, not capability, a lack of systems thinking. Furthermore, organizations may not "know" they "don't know" their true level of search expertise, a lack of knowing. A metamodel is presented identifying the causal factors for workplace exploratory search task performance. Semistructured qualitative interviews with search staff from the defense, pharmaceutical, and aerospace sectors indicates the potential transferability of the finding that organizations may not know their search expertise levels.

26 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A mixed-methods longitudinal study analysing feedback from over 1000 users and interviewing search service staff in a multinational corporation shows that 62% of dissatisfaction events were due to human (information and search literacy) rather than technology factors.
Abstract: Many organisations are re-creating the ‘Google-like’ experience behind their firewall to exploit their information. However, surveys show dissatisfaction with enterprise search is commonplace. No prior study has investigated unsolicited user feedback from an enterprise search user interface to understand the underlying reasons for dissatisfaction. A mixed-methods longitudinal study was undertaken analysing feedback from over 1000 users and interviewing search service staff in a multinational corporation. Results show that 62% of dissatisfaction events were due to human (information and search literacy) rather than technology factors. Cognitive biases and the ‘Google Habitus’ influence expectations and information behaviour and are postulated as deep underlying generative mechanisms. The current literature focuses on ‘structure’ (technology and information quality) as the reason for enterprise search satisfaction, agency (search literacy) appears downplayed. Organisations which emphasise ‘systems thinking’...

18 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An information needs model is presented that may help professionals to more effectively meet their information needs and stimulate new needs, improving a system’s ability to facilitate serendipity and has implications for faceted search in enterprise search and digital library deployments.
Abstract: The research aim was to develop an understanding of information need characteristics for word co-occurrence-based search result filters (facets). No prior research has been identified into what enterprise searchers may find useful for exploratory search and why. Various word co-occurrence techniques were applied to results from sample queries performed on industry membership content. The results were used in an international survey of 54 practising petroleum engineers from 32 organizations. Subject familiarity, job role, personality and query specificity are possible causes for survey response variation. An information needs model is presented: Broad, Rich, Intriguing, Descriptive, General, Expert and Situational (BRIDGES). This may help professionals to more effectively meet their information needs and stimulate new needs, improving a system's ability to facilitate serendipity. This research has implications for faceted search in enterprise search and digital library deployments.

17 citations

Dissertation
01 May 2017
TL;DR: In this article, a transdisciplinary (holistic) lens was applied to enterprise search and discovery capability, combining critical realism and activity theory with complexity theories to one of the worlds largest corporations.
Abstract: Many organizations are trying to re-create the Google experience, to find and exploit their own corporate information. However, there is evidence that finding information in the workplace using search engine technology has remained difficult, with socio-technical elements largely neglected in the literature. Explication of the factors and generative mechanisms (ultimate causes) to effective search task outcomes (user satisfaction, search task performance and serendipitous encountering) may provide a first step in making improvements. A transdisciplinary (holistic) lens was applied to Enterprise Search and Discovery capability, combining critical realism and activity theory with complexity theories to one of the worlds largest corporations. Data collection included an in-situ exploratory search experiment with 26 participants, focus groups with 53 participants and interviews with 87 business professionals. Thousands of user feedback comments and search transactions were analysed. Transferability of findings was assessed through interviews with eight industry informants and ten organizations from a range of industries. A wide range of informational needs were identified for search filters, including a need to be intrigued. Search term word co-occurrence algorithms facilitated serendipity to a greater extent than existing methods deployed in the organization surveyed. No association was found between user satisfaction (or self assessed search expertise) with search task performance and overall performance was poor, although most participants had been satisfied with their performance. Eighteen factors were identified that influence search task outcomes ranging from user and task factors, informational and technological artefacts, through to a wide range of organizational norms. Modality Theory (Cybersearch culture, Simplicity and Loss Aversion bias) was developed to explain the study observations. This proposes that at all organizational levels there are tendencies for reductionist (unimodal) mind-sets towards search capability leading to fixes that fail. The factors and mechanisms were identified in other industry organizations suggesting some theory generalizability. This is the first socio-technical analysis of Enterprise Search and Discovery capability. The findings challenge existing orthodoxy, such as the criticality of search literacy (agency) which has been neglected in the practitioner literature in favour of structure. The resulting multifactorial causal model and strategic framework for improvement present opportunities to update existing academic models in the IR, LIS and IS literature, such as the DeLone and McLean model for information system success. There are encouraging signs that Modality Theory may enable a reconfiguration of organizational mind-sets that could transform search task outcomes and ultimately business performance.

11 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this study, 53 scientists from two organisations interacted with semi-interactive stimuli, 74% expressing a large/moderate desire to use such techniques within their workplace, and Insightful and serendipitous encounters were identified.
Abstract: Categories or tags that appear in faceted search interfaces which are representative of an information item, rarely convey unexpected or non-obvious associated concepts buried within search results. No prior research has been identified which assesses the usefulness of discriminative search term word co-occurrence to generate facets to act as catalysts to facilitate insightful and serendipitous encounters during exploratory search. In this study, 53 scientists from two organisations interacted with semi-interactive stimuli, 74% expressing a large/moderate desire to use such techniques within their workplace. Preferences were shown for certain algorithms and colour coding. Insightful and serendipitous encounters were identified. These techniques appear to offer a significant improvement over existing approaches used within the study organisations, providing further evidence that insightful and serendipitous encounters can be facilitated in the search user interface. This research has implications for organisational learning, knowledge discovery and exploratory search interface design.

9 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Realist Socinl Tlicory: Tlic I\\loriJlio!gciicti( as discussed by the authors is a clear and well-structured introduction to critical i-disrri, one of the most vibrant theoretical streams in the field of social scicnces.
Abstract: he revised English edition of this book tlie T original Swcdisli cdition. without tlie subtitle. is froni 1997 should be considered :is i111 important contribution to sociology and social science in general to tlie extent tliat it is a clear and wcll-structured introduction to critical i-disrri, one of the most rccent and vigorous theoretical streams in the field of thc social scicnces. if we take into coiisidcration tlic influential work of hlargaret t\\rclier (1995: Realist Socinl Tlicory: Tlic I\\loriJlio!gciicti(’

913 citations