Other affiliations: University of Johannesburg
Bio: Paul Mativenga is an academic researcher from University of Manchester. The author has contributed to research in topics: Machining & Tool wear. The author has an hindex of 36, co-authored 158 publications receiving 5080 citations. Previous affiliations of Paul Mativenga include University of Johannesburg.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a review of previous research on heat generation and heat dissipation in the orthogonal machining process and propose some modelling requirements for computer simulation of high speed machining processes.
Abstract: Determination of the maximum temperature and temperature distribution along the rake face of the cutting tool is of particular importance because of its controlling influence on tool life, as well as, the quality of the machined part. Numerous attempts have been made to approach the problem with different methods including experimental, analytical and numerical analysis. Although considerable research effort has been made on the thermal problem in metal cutting, there is hardly a consensus on the basics principles. The unique tribological contact phenomenon, which occur in metal cutting is highly localized and non-linear, and occurs at high temperatures, high pressures and high strains. This has made it extremely difficult to predict in a precise manner or even assess the performance of various models developed for modelling the machining process. Accurate and repeatable heat and temperature prediction remains challenging due to the complexity of the contact phenomena in the cutting process. In this paper, previous research on heat generation and heat dissipation in the orthogonal machining process is critically reviewed. In addition, temperature measurement techniques applied in metal cutting are briefly reviewed. The emphasis is on the comparability of test results, as well as, the relevance of temperature measurement method to high speed cutting. New temperature measurement results obtained by a thermal imaging camera in high speed cutting of high strength alloys are also presented. Finally, the latest work on estimation of heat generation, heat partition and temperature distribution in metal machining is reviewed. This includes an exploration of the different simplifying assumptions related to the geometry of the process components, material properties, boundary conditions and heat partition. The paper then proposes some modelling requirements for computer simulation of high speed machining processes.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed a new model and methodology for optimising the energy footprint for a machined product, where the total energy of machining a component by the turning process was modelled and optimised to derive an economic tool-life that satisfies the minimum energy footprint requirement.
Abstract: The aim of the work reported in this paper was to develop a new model and methodology for optimising the energy footprint for a machined product. The total energy of machining a component by the turning process was modelled and optimised to derive an economic tool-life that satisfies the minimum energy footprint requirement. The work clearly identifies critical parameters in minimising energy use and hence reducing the energy cost and environmental footprint. Additionally, the paper explores and discusses the conflict and synergy between economical and environmental considerations as well as the effect of system boundaries in determining optimum machining conditions.
01 Oct 2009-Precision Engineering-journal of The International Societies for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology
TL;DR: In this paper, the size effect in micromilling hardened tool steel was observed by studying the effect of the ratio of undeformed chip thickness to the cutting edge radius on process performance, and how this ratio drove the specific cutting force, surface finish and burr formation in micro-scale machining.
Abstract: The market for freeform and high quality microdies and moulds made of steel is predicted to experience a phenomenal growth in line with the demand for microsystems. However, micromachining of hardened steel is a challenge due to unpredictable tool life and likely differences in process mechanism compared to macro-scale machining. This paper presents an investigation of the size effect in micromilling of H13 hardened tool steel. In this case, the size effect in micromilling hardened tool steel was observed by studying the effect of the ratio of undeformed chip thickness to the cutting edge radius on process performance. The paper explores how this ratio drives the specific cutting force, surface finish and burr formation in micro-scale machining. In addition, the effect of different microend mill geometry on product quality was explored. The paper provides a valuable insight into optimum micro-scale machining conditions for obtaining the best surface finish and minimizing burr size.
TL;DR: A mathematical model for electrical energy use in machining was developed addressing the limitations of existing models and validated on a milling tool path as discussed by the authors, which provides valuable information on the impact of machine modules, spindles, auxiliary units and motion states on the electrical energy demand budget for a machine tool resource.
Abstract: The aim of this research was to contribute towards the development of a new mathematical model and logic for predicting direct electrical energy requirements in machining toolpaths. This model will track the visibility and process dependence of energy and hence carbon footprint in machining process. This study includes a critical review of similar existing models and their limitations. The effect that machine modules, auxiliary units and machine codes have on power and energy consumption during machining was studied and the electrical current consumption measured. A mathematical model for electrical energy use in machining was developed addressing the limitations of existing models and validated on a milling tool path. The paper provides valuable information on the impact of machine modules, spindles, auxiliary units and motion states on the electrical energy demand budget for a machine tool resource. This knowledge is fundamentally important in evaluating toolpaths and re-designing machine tools to make them more energy efficient, to reduce electricity costs and associated carbon footprints.
TL;DR: In this paper, a minimum energy criterion was exploited in the development and implementation of a methodology for selection of optimum cutting conditions, and the energy saving impact of the new methodology was quantified by comparing to traditional practice.
Abstract: Environmental sustainability in machining requires that the energy and carbon footprint of machined products be optimised. The original contribution in this paper is that a minimum energy criterion recently proposed by the authors is exploited in the development and implementation of a methodology for selection of optimum cutting conditions. The energy saving impact of the new methodology was quantified by comparing to traditional practice. The synergy between minimum cost and minimum energy solutions was also explored. This timely research illustrates how the energy intensity and energy cost of a machined component can be minimised and hence reducing carbon dioxide emissions.
TL;DR: A review of the emerging research on additive manufacturing of metallic materials is provided in this article, which provides a comprehensive overview of the physical processes and the underlying science of metallurgical structure and properties of the deposited parts.
Abstract: Since its inception, significant progress has been made in understanding additive manufacturing (AM) processes and the structure and properties of the fabricated metallic components. Because the field is rapidly evolving, a periodic critical assessment of our understanding is useful and this paper seeks to address this need. It covers the emerging research on AM of metallic materials and provides a comprehensive overview of the physical processes and the underlying science of metallurgical structure and properties of the deposited parts. The uniqueness of this review includes substantive discussions on refractory alloys, precious metals and compositionally graded alloys, a succinct comparison of AM with welding and a critical examination of the printability of various engineering alloys based on experiments and theory. An assessment of the status of the field, the gaps in the scientific understanding and the research needs for the expansion of AM of metallic components are provided.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an overview of machining induced surface integrity in titanium and nickel alloys and conclude that further modeling studies are needed to create predictive physics-based models that is in good agreement with reliable experiments.
Abstract: Titanium and nickel alloys represent a significant metal portion of the aircraft structural and engine components. When these critical structural components in aerospace industry are manufactured with the objective to reach high reliability levels, surface integrity is one of the most relevant parameters used for evaluating the quality of finish machined surfaces. The residual stresses and surface alteration (white etch layer and depth of work hardening) induced by machining of titanium alloys and nickel-based alloys are very critical due to safety and sustainability concerns. This review paper provides an overview of machining induced surface integrity in titanium and nickel alloys. There are many different types of surface integrity problems reported in literature, and among these, residual stresses, white layer and work hardening layers, as well as microstructural alterations can be studied in order to improve surface qualities of end products. Many parameters affect the surface quality of workpieces, and cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, tool geometry and preparation, tool wear, and workpiece properties are among the most important ones worth to investigate. Experimental and empirical studies as well as analytical and Finite Element modeling based approaches are offered in order to better understand machining induced surface integrity. In the current state-of-the-art however, a comprehensive and systematic modeling approach based on the process physics and applicable to the industrial processes is still missing. It is concluded that further modeling studies are needed to create predictive physics-based models that is in good agreement with reliable experiments, while explaining the effects of many parameters, for machining of titanium alloys and nickel-based alloys.
07 Jun 2017
TL;DR: A review of the state of the art in chemical recycling can be found in this article, where the authors describe technologies available for sorting and recycling plastic solid waste into feedstocks, as well as state-of-the-art techniques to chemically recycle commercial plastics.
Abstract: Once referred to as ‘materials of 1,000 uses’, plastics meet demands in everything from clothing and automotive sectors to the manufacturing of medical equipment and electronics. Concomitant with usage, worldwide generation of plastic solid waste increases daily and is currently around 150 million tonnes per annum. Although recycled materials may have physical properties similar to those of virgin plastics, the resulting monetary savings are limited and the properties of most plastics are significantly compromised after a number of processing cycles. An alternative approach to processing plastic solid waste is chemical recycling, the success of which relies on the affordability of processes and the efficiency of catalysts. In this Review, we describe technologies available for sorting and recycling plastic solid waste into feedstocks, as well as state-of-the-art techniques to chemically recycle commercial plastics. These evaluations are followed by a survey of recent advances in the design of new high-performing recyclable polymers. Many methods exist for the recycling of plastic solid waste. Chemical recycling, which can take many forms from high-temperature pyrolysis to mild, solution-based catalytic depolymerization, can afford enormous economic and environmental benefits. This Review covers the state of the art in chemical recycling and the design of high-performance polymers amenable to such processes.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors review and identify the materials known as difficult-to-machine and their properties and major health and environmental concerns about their usage in material cutting industries are defined.
Abstract: Machining difficult-to-machine materials such as alloys used in aerospace, nuclear and medical industries are usually accompanied with low productivity, poor surface quality and short tool life. Despite the broad use of the term difficult-to-machine or hard-to-cut materials, the area of these types of materials and their properties are not clear yet. On the other hand, using cutting fluids is a common technique for improving machinability and has been acknowledged since early 20th. However, the environmental and health hazards associated with the use of conventional cutting fluids together with developing governmental regulations have resulted in increasing machining costs. The aim of this paper is to review and identify the materials known as difficult-to-machine and their properties. In addition, different cutting fluids are reviewed and major health and environmental concerns about their usage in material cutting industries are defined. Finally, advances in reducing and/or eliminating the use of conventional cutting fluids are reviewed and discussed.