Paul Michael Zender
Bio: Paul Michael Zender is an academic researcher from University of Cincinnati. The author has contributed to research in topics: Optical illusion & Cognition. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 2 publications receiving 5 citations.
30 Jul 2009
TL;DR: Here neurocognitive inspirations are used to create similar semantic graphs in an automated fashion that allow semi-automated query refinement and literature based discovery.
Abstract: Internet literature queries return a long lists of citations, ordered according to their relevance or date. Query results may also be represented using Visual Language that takes as input a small set of semantically related concepts present in the citations. First experiments with such visualization have been done using PubMed neuronal plasticity citations with manually created semantic graphs. Here neurocognitive inspirations are used to create similar semantic graphs in an automated fashion. This way a long list of citations is changed to small semantic graphs that allow semi-automated query refinement and literature based discovery.
••09 Jul 2011
TL;DR: Initial attempts to integrate physiological processes that directly relate to designers, such as: pop-out, visual illusions, and mental images are reported on at the University of Cincinnati.
Abstract: Whether through natural ability or educational training, designers possess advanced knowledge of visual form. Designers acquire most of this special knowledge through experience creating visual objects such as drawings, color symbols, and layouts. Although designers immerse themselves creating effects for visual perception they mostly do so without awareness of the causes of these effects. Designer’s form knowledge is more tacit than explicit. Perceptual scientists on the other hand have explicit knowledge of perception of visual form. They have identified physiological processes that directly relate to designers, such as: pop-out, visual illusions, and mental images. The question is less whether designers should be aware of these findings than how the growing understanding of visual perception and cognition can stimulate visual innovation and design practice. This paper reports on initial attempts to integrate this knowledge into design education at the University of Cincinnati.
TL;DR: POGGENPOHL and SATO as mentioned in this paper argue that design becomes a form of social practice, and this is not a practice that takes place in isolation, and that design needs to validate and ground research methods for itself and to develop its own fabric of knowledge.
Abstract: Design Integrations: Research and Collaboration SHARON POGGENPOHL AND KEIICHI SATO, EDITORS Bristol, UK: Intellect, 2009 ISBN 9781841502403 Softbound, 306 pages, black and white illustrations, $40.00 "Design becomes a form of social practice, and this is not a practice that takes place in isolation" (p. 19). Design Integrations states its thesis at the outset: "Design practice and education are changing, particularly in relation to... research and collaboration. If design is to develop as a discipline, it must necessarily develop further based on these themes." It studies design as seen by current teachers and practitioners who advocate design as a discipline. Thus, this book is not only about design research and collaboration; it is about those topics as integral to a design discipline and as a road to follow in creating one. What, then, does it mean to be a discipline? Should design aspire to discipline status or, as some advocate, should it be considered a profession or practice? Design has been on the horns of the dilemma of how to combine the concrete knowledge of practical experience with the abstract, theory bound knowledge of science for a long time. As a case study, design demonstrates the importance of this question, not just to academic theoreticians or philosophers of science, but to how the field can function and develop. Design needs to validate and ground research methods for itself and to develop its own fabric of knowledge by organizing disparate and synchretic findings into frameworks that give a deeper intelligibility to the practical and ecological levels of everyday existence and the enterprise to satisfy needs and create new possibilities. Disciplines are professions of research, scholarship and transmission. The term "discipline" is academic, grounded in the University's institutional role of developing, maintaining and transmitting essential knowledge and culture, to shape and support scientific, social, cultural, political and economic institutions upon which societies rest, and to enable societies to be deliberate and selfaware. Sociologists Parsons and Piatt (1968, 1973) described a discipline as an operationalization of the society's "value-pattern of instrumental activism" based on "cognitive rationality" (Parsons and Piatt, 1968: 1-14 in Light, p. 6). This view places postgraduate level research and scholarship as the core content of disciplinary work. Parsons and Piatt, (Light, 1974), and many others have documented the pervasive importance of disciplinarity within universities and the priority given to research and scholarly publications and the increasing emphasis on scientific research. Individual disciplines are defined by their specific subject matters, which are organized according to 1) integrated theoretical frameworks, bodies of knowledge and their uses, which form the core identities of the separate disciplines; 2) broadly held consensus on foundational theories or paradigms; 3) epistemic cultures or agreements on research methods, which differ across disciplines; and 4) belief that knowledge is essentially cummulative. (Einstein overthrew the Newtonian model of physics by building upon it.) This is an ideal/typical description because any of these four aspects can be in dispute, but it is a shared normative model and unresolvable disputes can become disciplinary crises. Disciplines are often silos. Each need to create knowledge according to its own needs and can be unaware that others have already answered questions it is asking. Disciplines are objects of their own study and disciplinary knowledge is grounded by its theoretical and empirical provenance. It is explicit, readily communicable using language and presented in logical constructs for analysis and criticism. Thus, while design is very much concerned with tacit thought and knowledge, particularly users' tacit knowledge, the idea that disciplinary thinking and knowledge can be tacit seems deeply problematical. …
TL;DR: In this position paper examples of neurocognitive inspirations and promising directions in this area are given.
Abstract: Informatics studies all aspects of the structure of natural and artificial information systems. Theoretical and abstract approaches to information have made great advances, but human information processing is still unmatched in many areas, including information management, representation and understanding. Neurocognitive informatics is a new, emerging field that should help to improve the matching of artificial and natural systems, and inspire better computational algorithms to solve problems that are still beyond the reach of machines. In this position paper examples of neurocognitive inspirations and promising directions in this area are given.
TL;DR: Text mining on pathology reports using the developed method to retrieve the statistics of hormone receptor expression status, documented in pathology reports, may benefit research of primary and recurrent breast cancer.
Abstract: Background Hormone receptors of breast cancer, such as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2), are important prognostic factors for breast cancer. Objective The current study aimed to develop a method to retrieve the statistics of hormone receptor expression status, documented in pathology reports, given their importance in research for primary and recurrent breast cancer, and quality management of pathology laboratories. Method A two-stage text mining approach via regular expression-based word/phrase matching, was developed to retrieve the data. Results The method achieved a sensitivity of 98.8%, 98.7% and 98.4% for extraction of ER, PR, and Her-2 results. The hormone expression status from 3679 primary and 44 recurrent breast cancer cases was successfully retrieved with the method. Statistical analysis of these data showed that the recurrent disease had a significantly lower positivity rate for ER (54.5% vs 76.5%, p=0.001278) than primary breast cancer and a higher positivity rate for Her-2 (48.8% vs 16.2%, p=9.79e-8). These results corroborated the previous literature. Conclusion Text mining on pathology reports using the developed method may benefit research of primary and recurrent breast cancer.
TL;DR: In this article, a coherent biomedical literature clustering and summarization approach that employs a graphical representation method for text using a biomedical ontology is presented, where the key of the approach is to construct document cluster models as semantic chunks capturing the core semantic relationships in the ontology-enriched scale free graphical representation of documents.
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a coherent biomedical literature clustering and summarization approach that employs a graphical representation method for text using a biomedical ontology. The key of the approach is to construct document cluster models as semantic chunks capturing the core semantic relationships in the ontology-enriched scale-free graphical representation of documents. These document cluster models are used for both document clustering and text summarization by constructing Text Semantic Interaction Network (TSIN). Our extensive experimental results indicate our approach shows 45% cluster quality improvement and 72% clustering reliability improvement, in terms of misclassification index, over Bisecting K-means as a leading document clustering approach. In addition, our approach provides concise but rich text summary in key concepts and sentences. The primary contribution of this paper is we introduce a coherent biomedical literature clustering and summarization approach that takes advantage of ontology-enriched graphical representations. Our approach significantly improves the quality of document clusters and understandability of documents through summaries.