Paul V. Ferkul
Other affiliations: Universities Space Research Association
Bio: Paul V. Ferkul is an academic researcher from Glenn Research Center. The author has contributed to research in topics: Flame spread & Combustion. The author has an hindex of 17, co-authored 75 publications receiving 812 citations. Previous affiliations of Paul V. Ferkul include Universities Space Research Association.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, an anomalous combustion of n-heptane droplets burning in microgravity is reported, and the authors hypothesize that the second-stage vaporization is sustained by low-temperature, soot-free, "cool-flame" chemical heat release.
Abstract: Experimental observations of anomalous combustion of n-heptane droplets burning in microgravity are reported. Following ignition, a relatively large n-heptane droplet first undergoes radiative extinction, that is, the visible flame ceases to exist because of radiant energy loss. But the droplet continues to experience vigorous vaporization for an extended period according to a quasi-steady droplet-burning law, ending in a secondary extinction at a finite droplet diameter, after which a vapor cloud rapidly appears surrounding the droplet. We hypothesize that the second-stage vaporization is sustained by low-temperature, soot-free, “cool-flame” chemical heat release. Measured droplet burning rates and extinction diameters are used to extract an effective heat release, overall activation energy, and pre-exponential factor for this low-temperature chemistry, and the values of the resulting parameters are found to be closer to those of “cool-flame” overall reaction-rate parameters, found in the literature, than to corresponding hot-flame parameters.
TL;DR: In this paper, the first results from isolated droplet combustion experiments performed on the International Space Station (ISS) were summarized, and the long durations of microgravity provided in the ISS enable the measurement of droplet and flame histories over an unprecedented range of conditions.
Abstract: This paper summarizes the first results from isolated droplet combustion experiments performed on the International Space Station (ISS). The long durations of microgravity provided in the ISS enable the measurement of droplet and flame histories over an unprecedented range of conditions. The first experiments were with heptane and methanol as fuels, initial droplet droplet diameters between 1.5 and 5.0 m m, ambient oxygen mole fractions between 0.1 and 0.4, ambient pressures between 0.7 and 3.0 a t m and ambient environments containing oxygen and nitrogen diluted with both carbon dioxide and helium. The experiments show both radiative and diffusive extinction. For both fuels, the flames exhibited pre-extinction flame oscillations during radiative extinction with a frequency of approximately 1 H z. The results revealed that as the ambient oxygen mole fraction was reduced, the diffusive-extinction droplet diameter increased and the radiative-extinction droplet diameter decreased. In between these two limiting extinction conditions, quasi-steady combustion was observed. Another important measurement that is related to spacecraft fire safety is the limiting oxygen index (LOI), the oxygen concentration below which quasi-steady combustion cannot be supported. This is also the ambient oxygen mole fraction for which the radiative and diffusive extinction diameters become equal. For oxygen/nitrogen mixtures, the LOI is 0.12 and 0.15 for methanol and heptane, respectively. The LOI increases to approximately 0.14 (0.14 O 2/0.56 N 2/0.30 C O 2) and 0.17 (0.17 O 2/0.63 N 2/0.20 C O 2) for methanol and heptane, respectively, for ambient environments that simulated dispersing an inert-gas suppressant (carbon dioxide) into a nominally air (1.0 a t m) ambient environment. The LOI is approximately 0.14 and 0.15 for methanol and heptane, respectively, when helium is dispersed into air at 1 atm. The experiments also showed unique burning behavior for large heptane droplets. After the visible hot flame radiatively extinguished around a large heptane droplet, the droplet continued to burn with a cool flame. This phenomena was observed repeatably over a wide range of ambient conditions. These cool flames were invisible to the experiment imaging system but their behavior was inferred by the sustained quasi-steady burning after visible flame extinction. Verification of this new burning regime was established by both theoretical and numerical analysis of the experimental results. These innovative experiments have provided a wealth of new data for improving the understanding of droplet combustion and related aspects of fire safety, as well as offering important measurements that can be used to test sophisticated evolving computational models and theories of droplet combustion.
Glenn Research Center1, Case Western Reserve University2, University of California, Berkeley3, University of Maryland, College Park4, University of Paris5, University of Bremen6, Moscow State University7, Hokkaido University8, European Space Research and Technology Centre9, University of Edinburgh10
TL;DR: In this paper, a large-scale flame spread experiment was conducted inside an orbiting spacecraft to study the effects of microgravity and scale and to address the uncertainty regarding how flames spread when there is no gravity and if the sample size and the experimental duration are, respectively, large enough and long enough to allow for unrestricted growth.
Abstract: For the first time, a large-scale flame spread experiment was conducted inside an orbiting spacecraft to study the effects of microgravity and scale and to address the uncertainty regarding how flames spread when there is no gravity and if the sample size and the experimental duration are, respectively, large enough and long enough to allow for unrestricted growth. Differences between flame spread in purely buoyant and purely forced flows are presented. Prior to these experiments, only samples of small size in small confined volumes had been tested in space. Therefore the first and third flights in the experimental series, called “Saffire,” studied large-scale flame spread over a 94 cm long by 40.6 cm wide cotton-fiberglass fabric. The second flight examined an array of nine smaller samples of various materials each measuring 29 cm long by 5 cm wide. Among them were two of the same cotton-fiberglass fabric used in the large-scale tests and a thick, flat PMMA sample (1-cm thick). The forced airflow was 20–25 cm/s, which is typical of air circulation speeds in a spacecraft. The experiments took place aboard the Cygnus vehicle, a large unmanned resupply spacecraft to the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments were carried out in orbit before the Cygnus vehicle, reloaded with ISS trash, re-entered the Earth's atmosphere and perished. The downloaded test data show that a concurrent (downstream) spreading flame over thin fabrics in microgravity reaches a steady spread rate and a limiting length. The flame over the thick PMMA sample approaches a non-growing, steady state in the 15 min burning duration and has a limiting pyrolysis length. In contrast, upward (concurrent) flame spread at normal gravity on Earth is usually found to be accelerating so that the flame size grows with time. The existence of a flame size limit has important considerations for spacecraft fire safety as it can be used to establish the heat release rate in the vehicle. The findings and the scientific explanations of this series of innovative, novel and unique experiments are presented, analyzed and discussed.
Technical University of Denmark1, University of Queensland2, University of Bremen3, Glenn Research Center4, Universities Space Research Association5, Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University6, University of California, Berkeley7, University of Edinburgh8, Hokkaido University9, Case Western Reserve University10
TL;DR: In this article, an international research team has been assembled to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing material samples in a series of flight experiments (Saffire 1, 2, and -3) to be conducted in an Orbital Science Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has undocked from the International Space Station (ISS).
Abstract: An international research team has been assembled to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing material samples in a series of flight experiments (Saffire 1, 2, and -3) to be conducted in an Orbital Science Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has undocked from the International Space Station (ISS). The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle re-enters the atmosphere. The unmanned, pressurized environment in the Saffire experiments allows for the largest sample sizes ever to be tested for material flammability in microgravity, which will be based on the characteristics of flame spread over the surface of the combustible material. Furthermore, the experiments will have a duration that is unmatched in scale compared to earth based microgravity research facilities such as drop towers (about 5 s) and parabolic flights (about 20 s). In contrast to sounding rockets, the experiments offer a much larger volume, and the reduction in the oxygen concentration during the Saffire experiments will be minimal. The selection of the experimental settings for the first three Saffire experiments has been based on existing knowledge of scenarios that are relevant, yet challenging, for a spacecraft environment. Given that there is always airflow in the space station, all the experiments are conducted with flame spread in either concurrent or opposed flow, though with the flow being stopped in some tests, to simulate the alarm mode environment in the ISS and thereby also to study extinguishment. The materials have been selected based on their known performance in NASA STD-6001Test-1, and with different materials being classified as charring, thermally thin, and thermally thick. Furthermore, materials with non-uniform surfaces will be investigated.
TL;DR: In this paper, a pressure-gravity model is proposed to simulate upward flame spread and burning rates over vertical solid samples in partial gravity environments, such as on the Moon and on Mars.
Abstract: Pressure–gravity modeling is proposed as a means to simulate upward flame spread and burning rates over vertical solid samples in partial gravity environments, such as on the Moon and on Mars. Based on experimental results in reduced gravity, the upward flame spread rate data over thin solids can be correlated by the expression p 1.8 g (where p is the ambient pressure and g is the gravity level). This is close to the theoretical p 2 g factor in preserving the Grashof number and is also supported by detailed numerical simulations. Since the flame size, shape and standoff distance are preserved in this simulation, it is expected that combustion properties controlled chiefly by convective heat transfer are properly accounted for by the present technique. This includes upward flame spread rates, growth rates, and burning rates over thin and thick solids in both laminar and turbulent flames. In flames where the heat transfer is dominated by soot emission, more studies are needed to verify the validity of this correlation.
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The sfpe handbook of fire protection engineering is universally compatible with any devices to read and is available in the authors' digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly.
Abstract: Thank you very much for downloading sfpe handbook of fire protection engineering. Maybe you have knowledge that, people have look numerous times for their favorite books like this sfpe handbook of fire protection engineering, but end up in infectious downloads. Rather than enjoying a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon, instead they juggled with some malicious bugs inside their laptop. sfpe handbook of fire protection engineering is available in our digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly. Our digital library saves in multiple locations, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Merely said, the sfpe handbook of fire protection engineering is universally compatible with any devices to read.
TL;DR: Bone, Newitt and Townend as mentioned in this paper published a comprehensive monograph "Flame and Combustion in Gases" by Prof. W. de C. Ellis and W. A. Townend.
Abstract: ELEVEN years ago appeared the comprehensive monograph entitled “Flame and Combustion in Gases” by Prof. W. A. Bone and D. T. A. Townend, followed a year or two later by “Gaseous Combustion at High Pressures” by Bone, Newitt and Townend. Except for a small volume on "Flame"by 0. C. de C. Ellis and W. A. Kirkby (1936), the subject has not since been treated as a whole in English, until the recent appearance of the work by Bernard Lewis and G. von Elbe now under review. Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases By Dr. Bernard Lewis Dr. Guenther von Elbe. (The Cambridge Series of Physical Chemistry.) Pp. xiv + 415. (Cambridge: At the University Press, 1938.) 21s. net.
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a method for determining the heat release rate of a fire using the reduction of oxygen in fire exhaust gases as an indicator of the amount of heat released by the burning test specimens.
Abstract: Intuitively, the rate of heat release from an unwanted fire is a major indication of the threat of the fire to life and property. This is indeed true, and a reliable measurement of a fire’s heat release rate was a goal of fire researchers at NBS and other fire laboratories at least as early as the 1960s. Historically, heat release measurements of burning materials were based on the temperature rise of ambient air as it passed over the burning object. Because the fraction of heat released by radiant emission varies with the type of material being burned, and because not all the radiant energy contributes to temperature rise of the air, there were large errors in the measurements. Attempts to account for the heat that was not captured by the air required siting numerous thermal sensors about the fire to intercept and detect the additional heat. This approach proved to be tedious, expensive, and susceptible to large errors, particularly when the burning “object” was large, such as a full-sized room filled with flammable furnishings and surface finishes. A novel alternative technique for determining heat release rate was developed at NBS during the 1970s. It had distinct advantages over the customary approach, but its widespread acceptance was hampered by uneasiness in the fire science community concerning potential errors if the technique were used in less-than-ideal circumstances. In 1980 Clayton Huggett, a fire scientist at NBS, published the seminal paper  that convinced the fire science community that the new technique was scientifically sound and sufficiently accurate for fire research and testing. The technique is now used worldwide and forms the basis for several national and international standards. The underlying principle of the new heat release rate technique was “discovered” in the early 1970s. Faced with the challenge of measuring the heat release of combustible wall linings during full-scale room fire tests, William Parker, Huggett’s colleague at NBS, investigated an alternative approach based on a simple fact of physics: in addition to the release of heat, the combustion process consumes oxygen. As part of his work on the ASTM E 84 tunnel test, Parker  explored the possibility of using a measurement of the reduction of oxygen in fire exhaust gases as an indicator of the amount of heat released by the burning test specimens. Indeed, for well-defined materials with known chemical composition, heat release and oxygen consumption can both be calculated from thermodynamic data. The problem with applying this approach to fires is that in most cases the chemical compositions of modern materials/ composites/mixes that are likely to be involved in real fires are not known. In the process of examining data for complete combustion (combustion under stoichiometric or excess air conditions) of the polymeric materials with which he was working, Parker found that, although the heat released per unit mass of material consumed (i.e., the specific heat of combustion), varied greatly, the amount of heat released per unit volume of oxygen consumed was fairly constant, i.e., within 15 % of the value for methane, 16.4 MJ/m of oxygen consumed. This fortunate circumstance—that the heat release rate per unit volume of oxygen consumed is approximately the same for a range of materials used to construct buildings and furnishings—meant that the heat release rate of materials commonly found in fires could be estimated by capturing all of the products of combustion in an exhaust hood and measuring the flow rate of oxygen in that exhaust flow. The technique was dubbed oxygen consumption calorimetry, notwithstanding the absence of any actual calorimetric (heat) measurements. Later in the decade, Huggett  performed a detailed analysis of the critical assumption of constant proportionality of oxygen consumption to heat release. Parker’s assumption was based on enthalpy calculations for the complete combustion of chemical compounds to carbon dioxide, water, and other fully oxidized compounds. Indeed, a literature review by Huggett revealed that Parker’s findings were actually a rediscovery and extension of the work of W. M. Thornton , published in 1917, which found that the heat released per unit amount of oxygen consumed during the complete combustion of a large number of organic gases and liquids was fairly constant. Nevertheless, since in real fires and fire experiments the oxygen supply is sometimes limited, incomplete combustion and partially oxidized products can be produced. Huggett’s paper examined in detail the assumption of constant heat release per amount of oxygen consumed under real fire conditions and assessed its effect on the accuracy of heat release rate determinations for fires. Instead of expressing results on a unit volume basis, as Parker did, Huggett expressed results in the more convenient and less ambiguous unit mass of oxygen
TL;DR: The U.S. Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan as mentioned in this paper, which can be found at http://energy.gov/downloads/doe-public-access-plan.
Abstract: This manuscript has been created in part by UChicago Argonne, LLC, Operator of Argonne National Laboratory ("Argonne"). Argonne, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science laboratory, is operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. The U.S. Government retains for itself, and others acting on its behalf, a paid-up non-exclusive, irrevocable worldwide license in said article to reproduce, prepare derivative works, distribute copies to the public, and perform publicly and display publicly, by or on behalf of the Government. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan. http://energy.gov/downloads/doe-public-access-plan. SSG acknowledges support through the U.S. DOE Vehicle Technology Program with Gurpreet Singh and Leo Breton as program managers. MSW acknowledges support through the U.S. DOE Basic Energy Sciences via contract No. DE-SC0002645. CJS acknowledges support through the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1402231. Michael Pamminger and Toby Rockstroh assisted in the translation of some of the early works by Jost, Rogener and co-workers.
01 Feb 1984