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Paula Casal

Other affiliations: Keele University, Harvard University
Bio: Paula Casal is an academic researcher from Pompeu Fabra University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Economic Justice & Ethos. The author has an hindex of 10, co-authored 28 publications receiving 506 citations. Previous affiliations of Paula Casal include Keele University & Harvard University.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2007-Ethics
TL;DR: In this article, the authors make a distinction between two categories of distributive principle which tend to favor less advantaged individuals when their interests conflict with those of more advantaged ones: prioritarian principles do not assume that inequality is ever noninstrumentally morally regrettable.
Abstract: In “Equality or Priority?” Derek Parfit draws an important distinction between two categories of distributive principle which tend to favor less advantaged individuals when their interests conflict with those of more advantaged individuals. Egalitarian principles do so because they assume that it is intrinsically bad, or unfair, if some individuals are worse off than others. Prioritarian principles do not assume that inequality is ever noninstrumentally morally regrettable. Instead they favor the less advantaged because they assume that the moral value of a benefit, or disvalue of a burden, diminishes as its recipient becomes better off. A great deal of recent work on distributive ethics has addressed the relative merits of these two categories of principle. A third category of sufficiency principles has also generated some significant debate. These principles

265 citations

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Paula Casal1

61 citations

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TL;DR: The Global Share as discussed by the authors is a tax on the use of natural resources to fund the eradication of world poverty, which is similar to the Global Resources Dividend and the Global Fund.
Abstract: Thomas Pogge's Global Resources Dividend relies on a flat tax on the use of natural resources to fund the eradication of world poverty. Hillel Steiner's Global Fund taxes the full rental value of owned natural resources and distributes the proceeds equally. The paper compares the Dividend and the Fund and defends the Global Share, a novel proposal that taxes either use or ownership, does so (when possible) progressively, and distributes the revenue according to a prioritarian rather than a sufficientarian or egalitarian principle.

29 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it is argued that procreative justice is asymmetric in the following respect: justice need not require that parents be subsidised if they produce a public good, yet its ideal achievement may require their activities be taxed if they threaten to produce a private bad.
Abstract: Abstract Individual decisions about how to exercise the legal right to procreative liberty may generate either positive or negative externalities. From within a resource egalitarian perspective, such as that of Ronald Dworkin, it can be argued that procreative justice is asymmetric in the following respect. Justice need not require that parents be subsidised if they produce a public good, yet its ideal achievement may require their activities be taxed if they threaten to produce a public bad.

28 citations

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TL;DR: In 2018, Pompeu Fabra University launched the Planetary Wellbeing Initiative, a long-term institutional strategy animated by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as mentioned in this paper, which is defined as the highest attainable standard of wellbeing for human and non-human beings and their social and natural systems.
Abstract: We live in a time of pressing planetary challenges, many of which threaten catastrophic change to the natural environment and require massive and novel coordinated scientific and societal efforts on an unprecedented scale. Universities and other academic institutions have the opportunity and responsibility to assume a leading role in an era when the destiny of the planet is precisely in the hands of human beings. Drawing on the Planetary Health project promoted by the Rockefeller Foundation and The Lancet, Pompeu Fabra University launched in 2018 the Planetary Wellbeing Initiative, a long-term institutional strategy also animated by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Planetary Wellbeing might be defined as the highest attainable standard of wellbeing for human and non-human beings and their social and natural systems. Developing the potential of these new concepts involves a substantial theoretical and empirical effort in many different fields, all of them interrelated by the crosscutting challenges of global complexity, interdisciplinarity, and urgency. Close collaboration of science, humanities, and culture is more desperately needed now than ever before in the history of humankind.

24 citations


Cited by
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TL;DR: It is impossible that the rulers now on earth should make any benefit, or derive any the least shadow of authority from that, which is held to be the fountain of all power, Adam's private dominion and paternal jurisdiction.
Abstract: All these premises having, as I think, been clearly made out, it is impossible that the rulers now on earth should make any benefit, or derive any the least shadow of authority from that, which is held to be the fountain of all power, Adam's private dominion and paternal jurisdiction; so that he that will not give just occasion to think that all government in the world is the product only of force and violence, and that men live together by no other rules but that of beasts, where the strongest carries it, and so lay a foundation for perpetual disorder and mischief, tumult, sedition and rebellion, (things that the followers of that hypothesis so loudly cry out against) must of necessity find out another rise of government, another original of political power, and another way of designing and knowing the persons that have it, than what Sir Robert Filmer hath taught us.

3,076 citations

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G. W. Smith1

1,991 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The idea of speculative reason has been used to resist the moral concept of freedom of choice for a long time as discussed by the authors, and to attack the moral concepts of freedom and, if possible, render it suspect.

1,142 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The Law of Peoples as discussed by the authors is an ideal normative framework for international law that accommodates a measure of realism and rejects the idea of a world-state, but it is not a model for the realistic utopia sketched in The Law of Nations.
Abstract: The Law of Peoples John Rawls Harvard 1999 John Rawls, the great political philosopher, has turned his reflections to questions of international justice, much as his philosophical ancestor Kant did toward the end of his career. Indeed, Kant's conception of a "pacific federation" of states in Perpetual Peace is Rawls's acknowledged model for the "realistic utopia" sketched in The Law of Peoples, which expands upon his 1993 essay by the same title (without, however, revising its basic argument). Despite differing philosophical constraints and geopolitical conditions, both Kant and Rawls aim to develop an ideal normative framework for international law that accommodates a measure of realism and rejects the idea of a world-state. Unfortunately, in its uncritical acceptance of so-called "decent hierarchical societies" even at the level of ideal theory, the normative claim of Rawls's Law of Peoples is undermined. This philosophical appeasement, meant to secure perpetual peace in our time through a moderately demanding Law of Peoples that liberal and "decent" hierarchical societies alike can endorse, departs fundamentally from Kant's cosmopolitanism. For Kant, the "First Definitive Article of a Perpetual Peace-as opposed to a temporary interruption of hostilities-is that each member state of the foedus pacif cum must have a republican form of government, which is partly founded upon "the principle of legal equality for everyone (as citizens)." By contrast, Rawls weakens his ideal of international justice to buy the assent of hierarchical societies, which by definition lack equality among citizens, at the price of sacrificing a theoretical basis for justifying reforms of the practices and institutions of these hierarchical societies above a minimal level of decency. Rawls's complex argument begins by extending the original position, in which principles of justice for the basic structure of society are chosen under epistemic constraints that ensure fairness, from a single liberal society to what he calls the Society of Liberal Peoples. In a second step, though still within ideal theory, he argues that the substantive principles comprising the Law of Peoples are also acceptable to decent hierarchical societies, which possess decent consultation hierarchies and common good conceptions of justice. Despite being inegalitarian, decent hierarchical societies do respect basic human rights, allow some dissent, and at least consult with representatives of groups whose members are denied full citizenship rights. …

1,137 citations