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Pavel Formánek

Bio: Pavel Formánek is an academic researcher from Mendel University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Soil water & Soil organic matter. The author has an hindex of 20, co-authored 56 publications receiving 1389 citations.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the relationship between soil heterotrophic respiration and different measures of soil moisture is consistently affected by soil properties, such as soil texture, organic carbon content and bulk density.
Abstract: . Soil moisture is of primary importance for predicting the evolution of soil carbon stocks and fluxes, both because it strongly controls organic matter decomposition and because it is predicted to change at global scales in the following decades. However, the soil functions used to model the heterotrophic respiration response to moisture have limited empirical support and introduce an uncertainty of at least 4% in global soil carbon stock predictions by 2100. The necessity of improving the representation of this relationship in models has been highlighted in recent studies. Here we present a data-driven analysis of soil moisture-respiration relations based on 90 soils. With the use of linear models we show how the relationship between soil heterotrophic respiration and different measures of soil moisture is consistently affected by soil properties. The empirical models derived include main effects and moisture interaction effects of soil texture, organic carbon content and bulk density. When compared to other functions currently used in different soil biogeochemical models, we observe that our results can correct biases and reconcile differences within and between such functions. Ultimately, accurate predictions of the response of soil carbon to future climate scenarios will require the integration of soil-dependent moisture-respiration functions coupled with realistic representations of soil water dynamics.

264 citations

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TL;DR: Lignin biodegradation by various microorganism, fungi and bacteria present in plant biomass and soils that are capable of producing ligninolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidsase (MnP), versatile peroxidease (VP), and dye-decolorizing peroxIDase (DyP) is focused on.
Abstract: Lignin is a major component of soil organic matter and also a rich source of carbon dioxide in soils. However, because of its complex structure and recalcitrant nature, lignin degradation is a major challenge. Efforts have been made from time to time to understand the lignin polymeric structure better and develop simpler, economical, and bio-friendly methods of degradation. Certain enzymes from specialized bacteria and fungi have been identified by researchers that can metabolize lignin and enable utilization of lignin-derived carbon sources. In this review, we attempt to provide an overview of the complexity of lignin’s polymeric structure, its distribution in forest soils, and its chemical nature. Herein, we focus on lignin biodegradation by various microorganism, fungi and bacteria present in plant biomass and soils that are capable of producing ligninolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), versatile peroxidase (VP), and dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP). The relevant and recent reports have been included in this review.

243 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of continuous percolation of solid cultivation medium with adjustment of nutrient-solution strength appears to be a promising methodology for the determination of root exudation rates and qualitative composition of exuded compounds.
Abstract: The aim of this work is to review the current knowledge on the effects of plant metabolism (C3, C4, and CAM) on root exudation and on the methods of exudate collection as well as the use of such exudates for analyses, testing of microbial response, degradation of pollutants, enzymatic activities, and occurrence of allelochemicals. We examine the advantages and disadvantages of each method as related to the downstream use of the exudates. The use of continuous percolation of solid cultivation medium with adjustment of nutrient-solution strength appears to be a promising methodology for the determination of root exudation rates and qualitative composition of exuded compounds. The method mimics rhizosphere conditions, minimizing the artificial accumulation of compounds, alteration of plasma-membrane permeability, ATPase activity, and the impacts of inhibitors or stimulators of root enzymes. Of particular significance is the fact that the adjustment of strength of nutrient solution and percolation enables universal and also long-term use of the method, allowing high exudation yield by minimizing influx and maximizing efflux rates of exuded compounds at high nutrient-solution strength. Furthermore, it facilitates assessment of the effect on soil microbial populations and their ability to degrade pollutants. Enzymatic activities can be assessed when a low strength of nutrient solution is used, with percolation of the exudates directly into tested soils. Composition of root exudates, regulation of root enzymes, and plant response to nutrient deficiency can be assessed by measuring net efflux or influx rates. The impact of heavy metals and other type of mechanical, chemical, and biological stresses differs according to the type of plant metabolism. This has significant consequences on transformations in plant communities, both structurally and functionally, and impacts upon crop nutrition, with respect to global climate change, and the use of plants for phytoremediation purposes. Understanding the effects of different types of plant metabolism on root exudation with respect to genetic regulation of synthetic pathways through root enzymes and transport systems presents an important direction for future research.

142 citations

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TL;DR: This review attempts to appraise the literature related to non-protein amino acids, both in terms of their metabolism, plant–soil interactions and at the level of the ecosystem, where they are seen as significant drivers of structure and function.
Abstract: Non-protein amino acids are a significant store of organic nitrogen in many ecosystems, but there is a lack of knowledge relating to them. Research has indicated that they play important roles as metabolites, as allelopthic chemicals, in nutrient acquisition, in signalling and in stress response. They are also thought to be responsible for significant medical issues in both invertebrate and vertebrate animals. This review attempts to appraise the literature related to non-protein amino acids, both in terms of their metabolism, plant–soil interactions and at the level of the ecosystem, where they are seen as significant drivers of structure and function. Finally, important areas for future research are discussed.

120 citations

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TL;DR: The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on inputs, sources and regulation of protease activities in soils from different ecosystems, while exploring limitations to proteolysis and N mineralisation, as well as identifying and characterisation of proteinaceous protease inhibitors of plant and microbial origin in the soil.

113 citations


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01 Jan 2016

1,907 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia XIV and its relation to the natural control of the oyster shell scale Lepidosaphes ulmi L.
Abstract: B6nassy, C., 1955. R6marques sur deux Aphelinid6s: Aphelinus mytilaspidis Le Baron et Aphytis proclia Walker. Annls l~piphyt. 6: 11-17. Lord, F. T. & MacPhee, A. W., 1953. The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia II. Oyster shell scale. Can. Ent. 79: 196-209. Pickett, A. D., 1946. A progress report on long term spray programs. Rep. Nova Scotia Fruit Grow. Ass. 83 : 27-31. Pickett, A. D., 1967. The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia XIV. Can. Ent. 97: 816-821. Tothill, J. D., 1918. The predacious mite Hemisarcoptes malus Shimer and its relation to the natural control of the oyster shell scale Lepidosaphes ulmi L. Agric. Gaz. Can. 5 : 234-239.

1,506 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The legal and regulatory status of biostimulants are described, with a focus on the EU and the US, and the drivers, opportunities and challenges of their market development are outlined.

1,340 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is growing scientific evidence supporting the use of biostimulants as agricultural inputs on diverse plant species, such as increased root growth, enhanced nutrient uptake, and stress tolerance.
Abstract: Plant biostimulants are diverse substances and microorganisms used to enhance plant growth. The global market for biostimulants is projected to increase 12 % per year and reach over $2,200 million by 2018. Despite the growing use of biostimulants in agriculture, many in the scientific community consider biostimulants to be lacking peer-reviewed scientific evaluation. This article describes the emerging definitions of biostimulants and reviews the literature on five categories of biostimulants: i. microbial inoculants, ii. humic acids, iii. fulvic acids, iv. protein hydrolysates and amino acids, and v. seaweed extracts. The large number of publications cited for each category of biostimulants demonstrates that there is growing scientific evidence supporting the use of biostimulants as agricultural inputs on diverse plant species. The cited literature also reveals some commonalities in plant responses to different biostimulants, such as increased root growth, enhanced nutrient uptake, and stress tolerance.

1,305 citations