Other affiliations: Complutense University of Madrid, University of Beira Interior, University of Porto
Bio: Pedro Moura is an academic researcher from University of Coimbra. The author has contributed to research in topics: Renewable energy & Electricity. The author has an hindex of 19, co-authored 58 publications receiving 1724 citations. Previous affiliations of Pedro Moura include Complutense University of Madrid & University of Beira Interior.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented a study of the economic and environmental balances for electric vehicles (EVs) versus internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) based on the Well-to-Wheel (WTW) methodology, a specific type of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA).
Abstract: This paper presents a study of the economic and environmental balances for Electric Vehicles (EVs) versus Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle (ICEV). The analyses were based on the Well-to-Wheel (WTW) methodology, a specific type of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). WTW balances were carried out taking into account different scenarios for the primary energy supply and different vehicle technologies. The primary energy supply includes non-renewable sources (fossil fuels and nuclear) and Renewable Energy Source (RES). Vehicle technologies include Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV), Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The generation scenarios considered in the study include the present European Union (EU) average mix and a planned increasing contribution from RESs. For the BEV, several real world driving cycle scenarios were investigated, using a custom built data acquisition system, in order to characterize the main factors that contribute to the overall energy consumption, associated cost and emissions. In terms of environmental impact, for the average EU electricity mix, BEVs have less than a half of the emissions than an ICEV. However, the ownership costs during its life cycle (about 10 y) are similar to an equivalent ICEV, despite the lower operational costs for BEVs. The likely battery price reduction, leading to a lower investment cost, will gradually tip the balance in favour of EVs.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors presented an environmental and an economic Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for conventional and electric vehicle technologies, focusing mainly on the primary energy source and the vehicle operation phase Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions.
Abstract: This paper presents an environmental and an economic Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) for conventional and electric vehicle technologies, focusing mainly on the primary energy source and the vehicle operation phase Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. A detailed analysis of the electricity mix was performed, based on the contribution of each type of primary energy source and their variation along a year. Three mixes were considered, with different life cycle GHG intensity: one mainly based in fossil sources, a second one with a large contribution from nuclear and a third one with a significant share of renewable energy sources. The conventional vehicle technology is represented by gasoline and diesel International Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs), while the electric technology is represented by Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). Real world tests were performed for representative compact and sub-compact EVs. The use profile of the vehicle was based on data acquired by a real time data acquisition system installed in the vehicles. The results show that a mix with a large contribution from Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) does not always translate directly into low GHG emissions for EVs due to the high variability of these sources. The driving profile under different scenarios was also analyzed, showing that an aggressive style can increase the energy consumption by 47%. The tests also showed that the use of climate control can increase the energy consumption between 24 and 60%. Compared with other technologies, EVs can be more sustainable from an environmental and economic perspective; however, three main factors are required: improvement of battery technology, an eco-driving attitude and an environmental friendly electricity mix.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the possible impact of demand-side management and demand response on the integration of the growing intermittent resources in Portugal, with the aim of enabling the integration and management of the wind power intermittence in Portugal.
Abstract: In a scenario of large scale penetration of renewable production from wind and other intermittent resources, it is fundamental that the electric system has appropriate means to compensate the effects of the variability and randomness of the wind power availability. This concern was traditionally addressed by the promotion of wind resource studies and acting in the supply side of energy and using energy storage technologies. However, in electric system planning, other options deserve to be evaluated, namely the options related with the energy demand. The most severe problems due to the wind power intermittence happen during the peak load hours. Thus, instead of trying to replace the lost capacity due to the intermittence, other option is to act in the energy demand side, with the aim of reducing the consumption in such hours. The demand-side management technologies are an option that must be considered to reduce and manage the wind power intermittence. The present paper analyzes the possible impact of demand-side management and demand response, with the aim of enabling the integration of the growing intermittent resources in Portugal.
TL;DR: In this paper, an energy storage system designed for residential buildings with photovoltaic generation is presented, which is able to increase the matching between the local generation and consumption, as well as to decease the energy bill, using lithium-ion batteries as a storage device.
Abstract: Climate and energy targets, as well as decreasing costs have been leading to a growing utilization of solar photovoltaic generation in residential buildings. However, even in buildings with the same level of yearly generation and consumption the mismatch between the demand and photovoltaic generation profiles leads to large power flows between the household and the grid. Such situation creates problems to the electrical grid management and can be a source of economic losses to the end-user. This paper presents an energy storage system designed in the context of residential buildings with photovoltaic generation. The objective of such system is to increase the matching between the local generation and consumption, as well as to decease the energy bill, using lithium-ion batteries as a storage device. Such system was modelled and simulated using real data of solar radiation and energy consumption from a typical residential household in Coimbra (Portugal). The results show that the designed system was able to reduce the energy sent to and consumed from the grid in 76% and in 78.3%, respectively, as well as the energy bill in 87.2%.
TL;DR: In this paper, a multi-objective method is proposed to optimize the mix of the renewable system maximizing its contribution to the peak load, while minimizing the combined intermittence, at a minimum cost.
Abstract: The 2001/77/CE European Commission Directive sets the target of 22% of gross electricity generation from renewables for the Europe, by 2010. In a scenario of large scale penetration of renewable production from wind and other intermittent resources, it is fundamental that the electric system has appropriate means to compensate the effects of the variability and randomness of the wind, solar and hydro power availability. The paper proposes a novel multi-objective method to optimize the mix of the renewable system maximizing its contribution to the peak load, while minimizing the combined intermittence, at a minimum cost. In such model the contribution of the large-scale demand-side management and demand response technologies are also considered.
TL;DR: A review of the current state of the art in computational optimization methods applied to renewable and sustainable energy can be found in this article, which offers a clear vision of the latest research advances in this field.
Abstract: Energy is a vital input for social and economic development. As a result of the generalization of agricultural, industrial and domestic activities the demand for energy has increased remarkably, especially in emergent countries. This has meant rapid grower in the level of greenhouse gas emissions and the increase in fuel prices, which are the main driving forces behind efforts to utilize renewable energy sources more effectively, i.e. energy which comes from natural resources and is also naturally replenished. Despite the obvious advantages of renewable energy, it presents important drawbacks, such as the discontinuity of generation, as most renewable energy resources depend on the climate, which is why their use requires complex design, planning and control optimization methods. Fortunately, the continuous advances in computer hardware and software are allowing researchers to deal with these optimization problems using computational resources, as can be seen in the large number of optimization methods that have been applied to the renewable and sustainable energy field. This paper presents a review of the current state of the art in computational optimization methods applied to renewable and sustainable energy, offering a clear vision of the latest research advances in this field.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a summary of techniques, models, and algorithms used for battery ageing estimation, going from a detailed electrochemical approach to statistical methods based on data, and their respective characteristics are discussed.
Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries have become the focus of research interest, thanks to their numerous benefits for vehicle applications. One main limitation of these technologies resides in the battery ageing. The effects of battery ageing limit its performance and occur throughout their whole life, whether the battery is used or not, which is a major drawback on real usage. Furthermore, degradations take place in every condition, but in different proportions as usage and external conditions interact to provoke degradations. The ageing phenomena are highly complicated to characterize due to the factors cross-dependence. This paper reviews various aspects of recent research and developments, from different fields, on lithium-ion battery ageing mechanisms and estimations. In this paper is presented a summary of techniques, models and algorithms used for battery ageing estimation (SOH, RUL), going from a detailed electrochemical approach to statistical methods based on data. In order to present the accuracy of currently used methods, their respective characteristics are discussed. Remaining challenges are deeply detailed, along with a discussion about the ideal method resulting from existing methods.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors review different approaches, technologies, and strategies to manage large-scale schemes of variable renewable electricity such as solar and wind power, considering both supply and demand side measures.
Abstract: The paper reviews different approaches, technologies, and strategies to manage large-scale schemes of variable renewable electricity such as solar and wind power. We consider both supply and demand side measures. In addition to presenting energy system flexibility measures, their importance to renewable electricity is discussed. The flexibility measures available range from traditional ones such as grid extension or pumped hydro storage to more advanced strategies such as demand side management and demand side linked approaches, e.g. the use of electric vehicles for storing excess electricity, but also providing grid support services. Advanced batteries may offer new solutions in the future, though the high costs associated with batteries may restrict their use to smaller scale applications. Different “P2Y”-type of strategies, where P stands for surplus renewable power and Y for the energy form or energy service to which this excess in converted to, e.g. thermal energy, hydrogen, gas or mobility are receiving much attention as potential flexibility solutions, making use of the energy system as a whole. To “functionalize” or to assess the value of the various energy system flexibility measures, these need often be put into an electricity/energy market or utility service context. Summarizing, the outlook for managing large amounts of RE power in terms of options available seems to be promising.
01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: From the experience of several industrial trials on smart grid with communication infrastructures, it is expected that the traditional carbon fuel based power plants can cooperate with emerging distributed renewable energy such as wind, solar, etc, to reduce the carbon fuel consumption and consequent green house gas such as carbon dioxide emission.
Abstract: A communication infrastructure is an essential part to the success of the emerging smart grid. A scalable and pervasive communication infrastructure is crucial in both construction and operation of a smart grid. In this paper, we present the background and motivation of communication infrastructures in smart grid systems. We also summarize major requirements that smart grid communications must meet. From the experience of several industrial trials on smart grid with communication infrastructures, we expect that the traditional carbon fuel based power plants can cooperate with emerging distributed renewable energy such as wind, solar, etc, to reduce the carbon fuel consumption and consequent green house gas such as carbon dioxide emission. The consumers can minimize their expense on energy by adjusting their intelligent home appliance operations to avoid the peak hours and utilize the renewable energy instead. We further explore the challenges for a communication infrastructure as the part of a complex smart grid system. Since a smart grid system might have over millions of consumers and devices, the demand of its reliability and security is extremely critical. Through a communication infrastructure, a smart grid can improve power reliability and quality to eliminate electricity blackout. Security is a challenging issue since the on-going smart grid systems facing increasing vulnerabilities as more and more automation, remote monitoring/controlling and supervision entities are interconnected.
TL;DR: In this article, the state of the art of the energy storage systems for wind power integration support from different aspects is reviewed, including the selection of the ESS type, and the optimal sizing and siting of an ESS.
Abstract: With the rapid growth of wind energy development and increasing wind power penetration level, it will be a big challenge to operate the power system with high wind power penetration securely and reliably due to the inherent variability and uncertainty of wind power. With the flexible charging–discharging characteristics, Energy Storage System (ESS) is considered as an effective tool to enhance the flexibility and controllability not only of a specific wind farm, but also of the entire grid. This paper reviews the state of the art of the ESS technologies for wind power integration support from different aspects. Firstly, the modern ESS technologies and their potential applications for wind power integration support are introduced. Secondly, the planning problem in relation to the ESS application for wind power integration is reviewed, including the selection of the ESS type, and the optimal sizing and siting of the ESS. Finally, the proposed operation and control strategies of the ESS for different application purposes in relation to the wind power integration support are summarized. The conclusion is drawn in the end.