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Author

Peter Blake

Bio: Peter Blake is an academic researcher from University of Manchester. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Graphene & Bilayer graphene. The author has an hindex of 36, co-authored 56 publication(s) receiving 37752 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Peter Blake include University of Minho & Daresbury Laboratory.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Boya Radha1, Ali Esfandiar1, FengChao Wang2, A. P. Rooney1  +12 moreInstitutions (3)
07 Sep 2016-Nature
TL;DR: This work reports the fabrication of narrow and smooth capillaries through van der Waals assembly, with atomically flat sheets at the top and bottom separated by spacers made of two-dimensional crystals with a precisely controlled number of layers, using graphene and its multilayers as archetypalTwo-dimensional materials to demonstrate this technology.
Abstract: Nanometre-scale graphitic capillaries with atomically flat walls are engineered and studied, revealing unexpectedly fast transport of liquid water through channels that accommodate only a few layers of water. Artificial nanometre-sized capillaries have enabled new research and led to the emergence of nanofluidics, but surface roughness in particular makes it very challenging to exactly control their dimensions. Andre Geim and colleagues now show that van der Waals assembly can produce narrow and smooth capillaries that have atomically flat top and bottom graphite sheets, separated by spacers made from a precisely controlled number of graphene layers. Water transport through the channels, which range in height from a single atomic plane to dozens of them, is unexpectedly fast and speeds up further in channels that accommodate only a few layers of water. The fabrication method is expected to give access to a wide range of capillaries with atomically precise sizes, and with permeation properties that are tunable by the choice of two-dimensional material used for creating the channel walls. Nanometre-scale pores and capillaries have long been studied because of their importance in many natural phenomena and their use in numerous applications1. A more recent development is the ability to fabricate artificial capillaries with nanometre dimensions, which has enabled new research on molecular transport and led to the emergence of nanofluidics2,3,4. But surface roughness in particular makes it challenging to produce capillaries with precisely controlled dimensions at this spatial scale. Here we report the fabrication of narrow and smooth capillaries through van der Waals assembly5, with atomically flat sheets at the top and bottom separated by spacers made of two-dimensional crystals6 with a precisely controlled number of layers. We use graphene and its multilayers as archetypal two-dimensional materials to demonstrate this technology, which produces structures that can be viewed as if individual atomic planes had been removed from a bulk crystal to leave behind flat voids of a height chosen with atomic-scale precision. Water transport through the channels, ranging in height from one to several dozen atomic planes, is characterized by unexpectedly fast flow (up to 1 metre per second) that we attribute to high capillary pressures (about 1,000 bar) and large slip lengths. For channels that accommodate only a few layers of water, the flow exhibits a marked enhancement that we associate with an increased structural order in nanoconfined water. Our work opens up an avenue to making capillaries and cavities with sizes tunable to angstrom precision, and with permeation properties further controlled through a wide choice of atomically flat materials available for channel walls.

321 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Freddie Withers, O. Del Pozo-Zamudio1, S. Schwarz1, S. Dufferwiel1  +14 moreInstitutions (4)
TL;DR: It is shown that the EQE of WSe2 devices grows with temperature, with room temperature EQE reaching 5%, which is 250× more than the previous best performance of MoS2 and MoSe2 quantum wells in ambient conditions.
Abstract: Monolayers of molybdenum and tungsten dichalcogenides are direct bandgap semiconductors, which makes them promising for optoelectronic applications. In particular, van der Waals heterostructures consisting of monolayers of MoS2 sandwiched between atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and graphene electrodes allows one to obtain light emitting quantum wells (LEQWs) with low-temperature external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 1%. However, the EQE of MoS2- and MoSe2-based LEQWs shows behavior common for many other materials: it decreases fast from cryogenic conditions to room temperature, undermining their practical applications. Here we compare MoSe2 and WSe2 LEQWs. We show that the EQE of WSe2 devices grows with temperature, with room temperature EQE reaching 5%, which is 250× more than the previous best performance of MoS2 and MoSe2 quantum wells in ambient conditions. We attribute such different temperature dependences to the inverted sign of spin–orbit splitting of conduction band states in tungste...

203 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Yang Cao, Artem Mishchenko, Geliang Yu, Ekaterina Khestanova  +17 moreInstitutions (4)
TL;DR: A remedial approach based on cleavage, transfer, alignment, and encapsulation of air-sensitive crystals, all inside a controlled inert atmosphere, which offers a venue to significantly expand the range of experimentally accessible two-dimensional crystals and their heterostructures.
Abstract: Many layered materials can be cleaved down to individual atomic planes, similar to graphene, but only a small minority of them are stable under ambient conditions. The rest react and decompose in air, which has severely hindered their investigation and potential applications. Here we introduce a remedial approach based on cleavage, transfer, alignment, and encapsulation of air-sensitive crystals, all inside a controlled inert atmosphere. To illustrate the technology, we choose two archetypal two-dimensional crystals that are of intense scientific interest but are unstable in air: black phosphorus and niobium diselenide. Our field-effect devices made from their monolayers are conductive and fully stable under ambient conditions, which is in contrast to the counterparts processed in air. NbSe2 remains superconducting down to the monolayer thickness. Starting with a trilayer, phosphorene devices reach sufficiently high mobilities to exhibit Landau quantization. The approach offers a venue to significantly ex...

354 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Andrey V. Kretinin1, Yang Cao, J. S. Tu, Geliang Yu  +17 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: This work reports on the search for alternative substrates for making quality graphene heterostructures using atomically flat crystals and attributes the difference mainly to self-cleansing that takes place at interfaces between graphene, hBN, and transition metal dichalcogenides.
Abstract: Hexagonal boron nitride is the only substrate that has so far allowed graphene devices exhibiting micrometer-scale ballistic transport. Can other atomically flat crystals be used as substrates for making quality graphene heterostructures? Here we report on our search for alternative substrates. The devices fabricated by encapsulating graphene with molybdenum or tungsten disulfides and hBN are found to exhibit consistently high carrier mobilities of about 60 000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). In contrast, encapsulation with atomically flat layered oxides such as mica, bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide, and vanadium pentoxide results in exceptionally low quality of graphene devices with mobilities of ∼1000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). We attribute the difference mainly to self-cleansing that takes place at interfaces between graphene, hBN, and transition metal dichalcogenides. Surface contamination assembles into large pockets allowing the rest of the interface to become atomically clean. The cleansing process does not occur for graphene on atomically flat oxide substrates.

432 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Andrey V. Kretinin1, Yang Cao, J. S. Tu, Geliang Yu  +17 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Hexagonal boron nitride is the only substrate that has so far allowed graphene devices exhibiting micron-scale ballistic transport. Can other atomically flat crystals be used as substrates for making quality graphene heterostructures? Here we report on our search for alternative substrates. The devices fabricated by encapsulating graphene with molybdenum or tungsten disulphides and hBN are found to exhibit consistently high carrier mobilities of about 60,000 cm$^{2}$V$^{-1}$s$^{-1}$. In contrast, encapsulation with atomically flat layered oxides such as mica, bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide and vanadium pentoxide results in exceptionally low quality of graphene devices with mobilities of ~ 1,000 cm$^{2}$ V$^{-1}$s$^{-1}$. We attribute the difference mainly to self-cleansing that takes place at interfaces between graphene, hBN and transition metal dichalcogenides. Surface contamination assembles into large pockets allowing the rest of the interface to become atomically clean. The cleansing process does not occur for graphene on atomically flat oxide substrates.

1 citations


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Journal ArticleDOI
Si-Yu Li1, Lin He2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) not only have potential applications on spin qubit, but also serve as essential platforms to study the fundamental properties of Dirac fermions, such as Klein tunneling and Berry phase. By now, the study of quantum confinement in GQDs still attract much attention in condensed matter physics. In this article, we review the experimental progresses on quantum confinement in GQDs mainly by using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Here, the GQDs are divided into Klein GQDs, bound-state GQDs and edge-terminated GQDs according to their different confinement strength. Based on the realization of quasi-bound states in Klein GQDs, external perpendicular magnetic field is utilized as a manipulation approach to trigger and control the novel properties by tuning Berry phase and electron-electron (e-e) interaction. The tip-induced edge-free GQDs can serve as an intuitive mean to explore the broken symmetry states at nanoscale and single-electron accuracy, which are expected to be used in studying physical properties of different two-dimensional materials. Moreover, high-spin magnetic ground states are successfully introduced in edge-terminated GQDs by designing and synthesizing triangulene zigzag nanographenes.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Environmental protection requires solving the problem of utilization and reduction of CO and CO2 emissions. Herein, Au/h-BN(O) and Pt/h-BN(O) nanohybrids are thoroughly analyzed in CO oxidation and CO2 hydrogenation reactions. The nanohybrids differ in catalytic particle size and particle distribution. The particles are smaller (1–6 nm) and display a narrower size distribution in the case of Pt-based nanomaterials. The Pt/h-BN(O) nanohybrids exhibit high catalytic activity in CO conversion and carbon dioxide hydrogenation reactions. For both systems, the oxidative state of BN support affects the catalytic activity. The possible catalytic reaction mechanisms are proposed based on DFT calculations. A charge density distribution at the Pt/h-BN interface increases oxygen absorption, thereby accelerating oxygen-associated chemical reactions.

Journal ArticleDOI
H. Bencherif, Fayçal Meddour, Lakhdar Dehimi1, G. Faggio2  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: In this paper, a novel 4H-SiC metal–semiconductor-metal photodetector design based on Graphene electrode engineering and gold nanoparticles is proposed. The benefits of using an intense light trapping formalism to improve the optical performance of the 4H-SiC PD are investigated by means of an accurate optoelectronic model. The developed model is based on the EMT and avoids the difficulty of considering all nanoparticles. The precision assessment of the built model is carried out by comparison with the experimental data. The findings shed light on the ability of the proposed design to realize the dual task of reducing the unwanted shadowing effect and improving the absorption through Graphene electrode formalism and the Surface Plasmon Resonance effect in the 4H-SiC layer. Furthermore, to optimize the design sensing capability, the proposed model is adopted to formulate fitness functions for the multi-objective genetic algorithm. It is found that for a filling fraction of 0.02 and 7.5 nm radius, the optimized design yields 50 % increase in absorption compared to the standard designs where responsivity of 458 mA/W, PDCR of 3.05 × 106 and response time of 4.7 µs are achieved. These findings confirm the outstanding ability of the proposed design approach to boost up the PD active area for low-cost and high sensing capability, making it valuable for optoelectronic application.



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Performance
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Author's H-index: 36

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
20161
20152
20143
20131
20124
20117