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Peter Brown

Bio: Peter Brown is an academic researcher from University of Oxford. The author has contributed to research in topics: Late Antiquity & Roman Empire. The author has an hindex of 37, co-authored 73 publications receiving 7294 citations. Previous affiliations of Peter Brown include John Radcliffe Hospital & Princeton University.


Papers
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Book
01 Jan 1988
TL;DR: In the early Middle Ages, sexual order and sexual renunciation in the early Church were discussed in this article, where the authors focus on the body and the city of the Church.
Abstract: PrefaceIntroductionPart I. From Paul to anthony1. Body and City2. From Apostle to Apologist: Sexual Order and Sexual Renunciation in the Early Church3. Martyrdom, Prophecy and Continence: Hermas to Tertullian4. "To Undo the Works of Women": Marcion, Tatian and the Encratites5. "When You Make the Two One": Valentinus and Gnostic Spiritual Guidance6. "A Faint Image of Divine Providence": Clement of Alexandria7. "A Promiscuous Brotherhood and Sisterhood": Men and Women in the Christian Churches8. "I Beseech You: Be Transformed": Origen9. "Walking on Earth, Touching High Heaven's Vault": Porphyry and Methodius10. Church and Body: Cyprian, Mani and Eusebius of CaesareaPart II. asceticism and Society in the Eastern Empire11. The Desert Fathers: Anthony to John Climacus12. "Make to Yourselves Separate Booths": Monks, Women and Marriage in Egypt13. "Daughters of Jerusalem": The Ascetic Life of Women in the Fourth Century14. Marriage and Mortality: Gregory of Nyssa15. Sexuality and the City: John Chrysostom16. "These Are Our Angels": SyriaPart III. Ambrose to Augustine: The Making of the Latin Tradition17. Aula Pudoris: Ambrose18. "Learn of Me a Holy Arrogance": Jerome19. Sexuality and Society: AugustineEpilogue. Body and Society: The Early Middle AgesBibliographyIndex

989 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Peter Brown1
TL;DR: In this article, the position of the holy man in Late Roman society is studied. But it is worth noting that there is a danger that the Holy Man may be taken for granted as part of the Byzantine scene, since most explanations of his position are deceptively easy.
Abstract: To study the position of the holy man in Late Roman society is to risk telling in one's own words a story that has often been excellently told before. In vivid essays, Norman Baynes has brought the lives of the saints to the attention of the social and religious historian of Late Antiquity. The patient work of the Bollandists has increased and clarified a substantial dossier of authentic narratives. These lives have provided the social historian with most of what he knows of the life of the average man in the Eastern Empire. They illuminate the variety and interaction of the local cultures of the Near East. The holy men themselves have been carefully studied, both as figures in the great Christological controversies of the fifth and sixth centuries, and as the arbiters of the distinctive traditions of Byzantine piety and ascetic theology.The intention of this paper is to follow well known paths of scholarship on all these topics, while asking two basic questions: why did the holy man come to play such an important role in the society, of the fifth and sixth centuries ? What light do his activities throw on the values and functioning of a society that was prepared to concede him such importance? It is as well to ask such elementary questions. For there is a danger that the holy man may be taken for granted as part of the Byzantine scene. Most explanations of his position are deceptively easy.

561 citations

Book
01 Sep 1992
TL;DR: Brown, a known authority on Mediterranean civilisation in late antiquity, traces the growing power of early Christian bishops as they wrested influence from the philosophers who had traditionally advised the rulers of Graeco-Roman society as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Peter Brown, a known authority on Mediterranean civilisation in late antiquity, traces the growing power of early Christian bishops as they wrested influence from the philosophers who had traditionally advised the rulers of Graeco-Roman society. In the new "Christian empire", the ancient bonds of citizen to citizen and of each city to its benefactors were replaced by a common loyalty to a distant, Christian autocrat. This transformation of the Roman Empire from an ancient to a medieval society, Brown argues, is among the most far-reaching consequences of the rise of Christianity. In the last centuries of the Roman Empire, the power of the emperors depended on collaboration with the local elites. The shared ideals of Graeco-Roman culture ("paideia"), which were inculcated among the elite by their education, acted as unwritten constitution. The philosophers, as representives of this cultural tradition and as critics and advisors of the powerful, upheld the ideals of just rule and prevented the abuses of power. Between the conversion of Emperor Constantine to Christianity in 312 and the reign of Theodosius (379-395), however, both Christian bishops and uneducated monks emerged as competitors to the traditional educated elites. Claiming as Christians to be the "true philosophers", they asserted their own role in swaying the emperors to mercy and just rule. Brown shows how charity to the urban poor gave bishops such as Saint Ambrose a novel power base - the restless lower classes of the empire. The lines of power that led from local society to the imperial court increasingly fell into the hands of the church, as clerics exercised their power to ensure the peace in cities, secure amnesties, and convey to the emperor the wishes of his subjects. Brown also points out how churchmen expressed their new local power through violence against rivals: Jewish synagogues and Roman Temples were destroyed, and Hypatia, one of the few women with a public role as a philosopher, was lynched in Alexandria. Brown demonstrates how Christian teaching provided a model for a more autocratic, hierarchial empire: the ancient ideals of democracy and citizenship gave way to the image of a glorious ruler showing mercy to his lowly and grateful subjects. Drawing upon a wealth of material - newly discovered letters and sermons of Saint Augustine, archaeological evidence, manuscripts in Coptic and Syriac - he provides a portrait of a turbulent and fascinating era.

459 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The New Edition of The New Directions Bibliography Index as discussed by the authors is a collection of the New Directions bibliography index for the New Edition version of the Book of New Directions (2018).
Abstract: Preface To The New Edition Preface Part I - 354 -385 Chronological Table A Africa Monica Education 'Wisdom' Manichaeism Friends Success Part II - 386-395 Chronological Table B Ambrose The Platonists 'Philosophy' Christianae Vitae Otium: Cassiciacum Ostia Servus Dei: Thagaste Presbyter Ecclesiae Catholicae: Hippo The Lost Future The 'Confessions' Part III - 395-410 Chronological Table C Hippo Regius Saluberrima consilia Ubi Ecclesia? Instantia Disciplina Populus Dei Doctrina Christiana 'Seek His Face Evermore' Part IV - 410-420 Chronological Table D Senectus Mundi Magnum opus et arduum Civitas peregrina Unity Achieved Pelagius And Pelagianism Causa Gratiae Fundatissima Fides Part V - 420-430 Chronological Table E Julian of Eclanum Predestination Old Age The End Of Roman Africa Death Epilogue New Evidence New Directions Bibliography Index

420 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Peter Brown1

393 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the rules of the ring, the ring population, and the need to get off the ring in order to measure the movement of a cyclic clock.
Abstract: 1980 Preface * 1999 Preface * 1999 Acknowledgements * Introduction * 1 Circular Logic * 2 Phase Singularities (Screwy Results of Circular Logic) * 3 The Rules of the Ring * 4 Ring Populations * 5 Getting Off the Ring * 6 Attracting Cycles and Isochrons * 7 Measuring the Trajectories of a Circadian Clock * 8 Populations of Attractor Cycle Oscillators * 9 Excitable Kinetics and Excitable Media * 10 The Varieties of Phaseless Experience: In Which the Geometrical Orderliness of Rhythmic Organization Breaks Down in Diverse Ways * 11 The Firefly Machine 12 Energy Metabolism in Cells * 13 The Malonic Acid Reagent ('Sodium Geometrate') * 14 Electrical Rhythmicity and Excitability in Cell Membranes * 15 The Aggregation of Slime Mold Amoebae * 16 Numerical Organizing Centers * 17 Electrical Singular Filaments in the Heart Wall * 18 Pattern Formation in the Fungi * 19 Circadian Rhythms in General * 20 The Circadian Clocks of Insect Eclosion * 21 The Flower of Kalanchoe * 22 The Cell Mitotic Cycle * 23 The Female Cycle * References * Index of Names * Index of Subjects

3,424 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: The authors examine how things are sold and traded in a variety of social and cultural settings, both present and past, focusing on culturally defined aspects of exchange and socially regulated processes of circulation, illuminate the ways in which people find value in things and things give value to social relations.
Abstract: The meaning that people attribute to things necessarily derives from human transactions and motivations, particularly from how those things are used and circulated. The contributors to this volume examine how things are sold and traded in a variety of social and cultural settings, both present and past. Focusing on culturally defined aspects of exchange and socially regulated processes of circulation, the essays illuminate the ways in which people find value in things and things give value to social relations. By looking at things as if they lead social lives, the authors provide a new way to understand how value is externalized and sought after. They discuss a wide range of goods - from oriental carpets to human relics - to reveal both that the underlying logic of everyday economic life is not so far removed from that which explains the circulation of exotica, and that the distinction between contemporary economics and simpler, more distant ones is less obvious than has been thought. As the editor argues in his introduction, beneath the seeming infinitude of human wants, and the apparent multiplicity of material forms, there in fact lie complex, but specific, social and political mechanisms that regulate taste, trade, and desire. Containing contributions from American and British social anthropologists and historians, the volume bridges the disciplines of social history, cultural anthropology, and economics, and marks a major step in our understanding of the cultural basis of economic life and the sociology of culture. It will appeal to anthropologists, social historians, economists, archaeologists, and historians of art.

3,034 citations

Book
01 Jan 1986
TL;DR: The sources of social power trace their interrelations throughout human history as discussed by the authors, from neolithic times, through ancient Near Eastern civilizations, the classical Mediterranean age and medieval Europe up to just before the Industrial Revolution in England.
Abstract: Distinguishing four sources of power in human societies – ideological, economic, military and political – The Sources of Social Power traces their interrelations throughout human history In this first volume, Michael Mann examines interrelations between these elements from neolithic times, through ancient Near Eastern civilizations, the classical Mediterranean age and medieval Europe, up to just before the Industrial Revolution in England It offers explanations of the emergence of the state and social stratification; of city-states, militaristic empires and the persistent interaction between them; of the world salvation religions; and of the particular dynamism of medieval and early modern Europe It ends by generalizing about the nature of overall social development, the varying forms of social cohesion and the role of classes and class struggle in history First published in 1986, this new edition of Volume 1 includes a new preface by the author examining the impact and legacy of the work

2,186 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

931 citations

MonographDOI
TL;DR: The argument of ethnic cleansing in former times is discussed in this article, where two versions of 'we, the people' are presented. But the argument is not applicable to the current world.
Abstract: 1. The argument 2. Ethnic cleansing in former times 3. Two versions of 'we, the people' 4. Genocidal democracies in the New World 5. Armenia, I: into the danger zone 6. Armenia, II: genocide 7. Nazis, I: radicalization 8. Nazis, II: fifteen hundred perpetrators 9. Nazis, III: genocidal careers 10. Germany's allies and auxiliaries 11. Communist cleansing: Stalin, Mao, Pol Pot 12. Yugoslavia, I: into the danger zone 13. Yugoslavia, II: murderous cleansing 14. Rwanda, I: into the danger zone 15. Rwanda, II: genocide 16. Counterfactual cases: India and Indonesia 17. Combating ethnic cleansing in the world today.

930 citations