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Peter Gwynne

Bio: Peter Gwynne is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: China & Government. The author has an hindex of 8, co-authored 53 publications receiving 252 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the effort to keep up with smaller, more nimble competitors, large high-technology companies are increasingly turning to skunk works, small groups of scientists, engineers and other personnel who tackle specific problems and try to commercialize the solutions as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: OVERVIEW:In the effort to keep up with smaller, more nimble competitors, large high-technology companies are increasingly turning to skunk works—small groups of scientists, engineers and other personnel who tackle specific problems and try to commercialize the solutions. However, no skunk works comes with a guarantee. Cases in which skunk works have failed to deliver illustrate the factors necessary for success. The corporate culture must be appropriate to support a countercultural entity in its midst. At least one top manager must support the nascent skunk works and insulate its personnel from day-to-day corporate activities. And management must devise a strategy for commercializing the result of the skunk works activity.

37 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: An emerging group of "knowledge brokers"-institutions that aim to bring together firms with difficult technical problems and individual scientists or scientific teams worldwide who possess the tools and the ideas to solve the problems, are being facilitated by the "open innovation" web communities.
Abstract: Corporate Strategy Just like manufacturing operations and call centers, corporate R&D has gone global. It has done so via the Internet, facilitated by an emerging group of "knowledge brokers"-institutions that aim to bring together firms with difficult technical problems and individual scientists or scientific teams worldwide who possess the tools and the ideas to solve the problems. "We have the capability to find virtually anyone in real time who has the knowledge and ability to tackle a problem," says Paul Stiros, CEO and president of NineSigma, a Cleveland, Ohio firm founded in 2000. "We're in an emerging field now," adds Phil Stern, co-founder and CEO of yet2.com, a Needham, Massachusetts, company founded a year earlier "to bring buyers and sellers of technologies together so that all parties maximize the return on their investments." Quantitative data on the networks' expansion are hard to find. "I have not come across any such data apart from what companies project, which are not necessarily validated," says Satish Nambisan, an associate professor in Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's Lally School of Management. But anecdotal information suggests that the number of problems solved by the "open innovation" web communities has grown steadily during the past five years. "The idea is one part of companies' portfolio strategy," says Karim Lakhani, an assistant professor in Harvard Business School who studies web communities. "It's still nascent but ready to take off." Large companies such as Procter & Gamble, General Motors and IBM were the early adopters. But medium-sized firms have begun to buy into the concept. Often encouraged by glowing press reports, several have become clients of the brokers and the scientists in their databases. Teething Troubles Like any new industry, however, this type of communal research has experienced some teething troubles. Some clients have encountered difficulties when they try to incorporate solutions from the web communities into their product lines. "We have heard a lot of talk about the potential of open innovation communities," Nambisan says. "But when it comes to actual execution there is a significant gap." Several unconnected developments stimulated the web communities. "There were two very public test cases: Linux and the open software movement," Lakhani explains. "They represented the idea of doing software development around the world with people you had never met. Another popularizer is Wikipedia-a very sophisticated knowledge-gathering mechanism. People say that if this can happen with software and an encyclopedia, why not in my domain?" Some entrepreneurs translated the message into action. "The idea of open innovation existed in 1999 but wasn't on everybody's tongue," Stern says. "What led us to found yet2.com was a large set of technologies developed by large companies and not used in the marketplace. We saw the opportunity to monetize those assets." And in 2001 the pharmaceutical firm Eli Lilly and Company funded InnoCentive, an e-business aimed at open-sourced, open network innovation and global collaboration. The Basic Approach The members of what Nambisan calls "the innovation bazaar" have varying philosophies and nomenclatures. However, they agree on the basic approach to problem solving. "There's a lot of knowledge outside the local organization," Lakhani explains. "Finding the knowledge is often a difficult search problem. Searching for the right person is a tough task. So rather than searching on the outside, you allow anybody to participate. It completely turns on its head the search process and the innovation process. What it says is: 'Let's be transparent about our problems and attract people who may have already solved them elsewhere'." The knowledge brokers offer two forms of added value to their clients. First come their lists of problem solvers, which can amount to hundreds of thousands and even millions. …

24 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: A series of new pro grams in business schools and undergraduate colleges illustrates a growing trend in college-level education: teaching and encouraging entrepreneurship as discussed by the authors, which has clear implications for large technology-based corporations in general and their research managers in particular.
Abstract: [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] A series of new pro grams in business schools and undergraduate colleges illustrates a growing trend in college-level education: teaching and encouraging entrepreneurship. Increasing numbers of private and public universities and hospitals offer formal programs that train students to spot spin-off opportunities of the type that led to the famous Route 128 in Massachusetts and Silicon Valley in California---or to develop disruptive advances in traditional corporations. The trend has clear implications for large technology-based corporations in general and their research managers in particular. "Recruiting people with an entrepreneurial mindset is an almost necessary condition in a turbulent age," says Graham Mitchell, director of Lehigh University's Program in Entrepreneurship. But corporations that aim to recruit the brightest graduates with that mindset will find themselves in tough competition with start-up firms and other small companies that offer the graduates the opportunity to put their learning into practice immediately, without having to overcome the corporate red tape that often slows the application of new ideas and modes of thinking. Entrepreneurship education is hardly a 21st century phenomenon. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, hotbed of spin-offs that created the Route 128 phenomenon in the 1960s, started up its Entrepreneurship Center 16 years ago. Other research universities introduced their own courses in entrepreneurship during the 1990s. Even Harvard Business School, the epitome of education for future leaders of traditional corporations, has a mandatory course on entrepreneurship. In the past two years, however, the pace has quickened significantly. According to the National Consortium of Entrepreneurship Centers, about 160 academic centers now teach the subject. "I'd describe the situation more as a new phase in entrepreneurship education than a new awareness," says Jonathan Rosen, executive director of Boston University's Institute of Technology Entrepreneurship and Commercialization (ITEC). ITEC, created with the goal of "educating, training, mentoring, and providing networking programs and opportunities that support the new entrepreneur," illustrates the growing interest in providing students with an entrepreneurial mindset. So does Boston University's Entrepreneurial Research Lab. Run jointly by ITEC and the university's Office of Technology Development, it has just taken in the first participants in a program intended to stimulate creation of companies and to commercialize technology developed by university researchers. Across the river in Cambridge, meanwhile, MIT has greatly expanded its offerings in entrepreneurship and education. In September 2006, its Sloan School of Management started a new program that adds a Certificate in Entrepreneurship & Innovation to the conventional M.B.A. degree. "We expected it to be a pilot test with 10 to 15 students," says Edward B. Roberts, the founder and chair of the MIT Entrepreneurship Center who heads the new program. "We had 130 out of about 300 students in the M.B.A. class apply for it." Roberts and his colleagues selected 50 students, half of whom had already been entrepreneurs, who will receive their certificates in May 2008. Global Entrepreneurs Entrepreneurship education is also going global. MIT has just received a gift of $50 million from the Dubai-based investment firm Legatum to create a Legatum Center for Development and Entrepreneurship. The center has the goal of supporting aspiring entrepreneurs from the developing world. What has stimulated the growing interest in entrepreneurship courses? Lehigh's Mitchell sees it as a natural outcome of recent years' turbulence that has changed the face of traditional employment. Today's college students, he says, "grew up seeing their parents losing what they had hoped would be long-lasting jobs and employment security, and so are more attuned to the increasingly rapid pace of changing market needs. …

21 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a group of individuals who have taken on the joint responsibilities agree that the advantages of the double duty far outweigh the disadvantages of having a CTO with a single CTO.
Abstract: At a time when many American firms are deemphasizing the role of the chief technology officer, those CTOs who also have PL Andrew Grove of Intel provides a typical example. In companies that have a separate CTO, the addition of line responsibility to the job description can significantly boost that person's value to the company. Consider Ronald Kerber, who in 1991 moved from the CTO position at McDonnell Douglas Corp. to his present position as CTO and executive vice president of Whirlpool Corp., based in Benton Harbor, Michigan. Kerber has worldwide responsibility for purchasing, which accounts for 550 percent of Whirlpool's product costs. He also oversees the company's global microwave oven and air conditioning businesses, which account for about $1 billion per year in revenues, "This was," he recalls, "an experiment that the company and I agree has gone quite well." Members of a small, unscientifically-selected group of individuals who have taken on the joint responsibilities agree that the advantages of the double duty far outweigh the disadvantages. They point to two key advantages of giving CTOs P&L responsibility for specific product lines. First, the line job provides the CTO with a true feeling for customers' needs. That type of understanding is impossible to obtain from the sheltered perspective of the laboratory alone. …

18 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Following the example of Japan, the governments of three nations in East Asia are plowing money into development work aimed at creating high-technology products that will have an impact on global m...
Abstract: Following the example of Japan, the governments of three nations in East Asia are plowing money into development work aimed at creating high-technology products that will have an impact on global m...

17 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore the limits in our understanding of the open innovation concept and address the questions of what (the content of open innovation), when (the context dependency) and how (the process).

1,635 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a study of 25 pioneering companies whose success has been based on radical business innovation indicates that such companies are better described as market driving while market driven processes are excellent in generating incremental innovation, they rarely produce the type of radical innovation which underlies market driving companies.

487 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A systematic literature review and a synthesis of high-quality contributions in this field with a focus on a general overview of research on co-copetition, coopetition as a strategy, and the management of co-opetition is presented in this article.
Abstract: Coopetition describes an interorganizational relationship that combines “cooperation” and “competition”. During recent years, coopetition has become an important domain for industrial practice which has led to an increasing rate of publications in academic journals. Despite the growing interest, coopetition research is still fragmented, reflected by divergent uses of the coopetition concept, a lack of generalizability, and a limited contextual focus. This article presents a systematic literature review and a synthesis of high-quality contributions in this field with a focus on a general overview of research on coopetition, coopetition as a strategy, and the management of coopetition. By critically evaluating the current body of literature and definitions, and connecting it to other promising domains, we develop a new definition of coopetition and highlight several promising areas for future research, such as the elaboration of theoretical and empirical approaches, the consideration of contextual contingencies, and implications for innovation that involves interorganizational knowledge flow.

409 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a case study at Deutsche Telekom, the German national telecommunication operator, is presented to analyse to what extent the open innovation paradigm has been embraced inside this now multinational company.
Abstract: When, on 21st September 2006, ‘The Economist’ compared incumbent telecommunication operators with dinosaurs that could soon face extinction, most readers were ready to agree. The mixture of declining revenues and fierce competition was believed to shake the market and soon to dethrone former national champions. However, there are ways to fight that extinction and one way is to open up for competitive advantage. This paper reflects on a case study at Deutsche Telekom, the German national telecommunication operator. The aim of this study is to analyse to what extent the open innovation paradigm has been embraced inside this now multinational company. Using empirical evidence from 15 in-depth interviews, we identify 11 open innovation instruments and detail their value contribution. We can show that Deutsche Telekom has successfully enhanced its innovation capacity by opening up its traditional development process and embracing external creativity and knowledge resources.

381 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper characterize the minimal structures that allow jazz improvisers to merge composition and performance, and then proceed to apply this approach to new product development.
Abstract: This paper demonstrates how the art form jazz improvisation can be applied to organizational innovative activities, focusing specifically on product innovation. In the past, the literature on product innovation focused on well-planned approaches which followed a clearly-understood structure based on a rational-functionalist paradigm. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that this model is inappropriate in today's highly competitive business environment. A balance between structure and flexibility seems to be an appropriate way to manage the contradicting demands of control and creativity faced by organizations in highly competitive environments. Jazz improvisation provides this synthesis through the concept of `minimal structures'. We characterize the minimal structures that allow jazz improvisers to merge composition and performance, and then proceed to apply this approach to new product development.

345 citations