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Peter J. Anderson

Bio: Peter J. Anderson is an academic researcher from Monash University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Medicine & Population. The author has an hindex of 120, co-authored 966 publications receiving 63635 citations. Previous affiliations of Peter J. Anderson include Queensland University of Technology & CompuServe.


Papers
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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that the conductance of disordered electronic systems depends on their length scale in a universal manner, and asymptotic forms for the scaling function were obtained for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional systems.
Abstract: Arguments are presented that the $T=0$ conductance $G$ of a disordered electronic system depends on its length scale $L$ in a universal manner. Asymptotic forms are obtained for the scaling function $\ensuremath{\beta}(G)=\frac{d\mathrm{ln}G}{d\mathrm{ln}L}$, valid for both $G\ensuremath{\ll}{G}_{c}\ensuremath{\simeq}\frac{{e}^{2}}{\ensuremath{\hbar}}$ and $G\ensuremath{\gg}{G}_{c}$. In three dimensions, ${G}_{c}$ is an unstable fixed point. In two dimensions, there is no true metallic behavior; the conductance crosses over smoothly from logarithmic or slower to exponential decrease with $L$.

4,466 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new theory of spin glasses is proposed, which offers a simple explanation of the cusp found experimentally in the susceptibility, which is smoothed by an external field.
Abstract: A new theory of the class of dilute magnetic alloys, called the spin glasses, is proposed which offers a simple explanation of the cusp found experimentally in the susceptibility. The argument is that because the interaction between the spins dissolved in the matrix oscillates in sign according to distance, there will be no mean ferro- or antiferromagnetism, but there will be a ground state with the spins aligned in definite directions, even if these directions appear to be at random. At the critical temperature the existence of these preferred directions affects the orientation of the spins, leading to a cusp in the susceptibility. This cusp is smoothed by an external field. Although the behaviour at low t needs a quantum mechanical treatment, it is interesting to complete the classical calculations down to t=0. Classically the susceptibility tends to a constant value at t=0, and the specific heat to a constant value.

2,965 citations

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TL;DR: The ecological validity of EF tests and neuropsychological assessment procedures are examined, and adjunct methods of measurement are presented to enable a more comprehensive and valid assessment of EF.
Abstract: This review paper outlines the issues associated with the assessment of executive function (EF) in children and adolescents, and describes the developmental profile of executive processes across childhood At the outset, EF is defined, and cognitive and behavioral impairments associated with executive dysfunction (EDF) are described A developmental model of EF is proposed incorporating four discrete but inter-related executive domains (attentional control, cognitive flexibility, goal setting, and information processing) which operate in an integrative manner to enable “executive control” Characteristics that constitute traditional EF measures are discussed, as are the problems associated with test interpretation The ecological validity of EF tests and neuropsychological assessment procedures are examined, and adjunct methods of measurement are presented to enable a more comprehensive and valid assessment of EF Based on developmental and normative studies, the maturation of executive domains is mapped

1,829 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Peter J. Anderson1
TL;DR: In this article, the general formalism of Kramers indicating the existence of superexchange interaction has been reduced, under simplifying assumptions, to the point where actual formulas for the interaction can be written down directly in terms of spin operators, with certain exchange and transition integrals as parameters.
Abstract: In this paper the general formalism of Kramers indicating the existence of superexchange interaction has been reduced, under simplifying assumptions, to the point where actual formulas for the interaction can be written down directly in terms of spin operators, with certain exchange and transition integrals as parameters. Two results of physical interest are the following: (a) superexchange must be expected to show the directional properties (as far as directional relations of interacting magnetic ions are concerned) of the orbitals in the outer shell of the non-magnetic connecting ions; and (b) the sign of the effective exchange integral depends upon the sign of the internal exchange coupling of an added electron on the magnetic ion.

1,304 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a theory of the cholesteric blue phase is presented, assuming a first-order Cholesteric-isotropic transition, and it is shown that the planar helix structure becomes unstable at temperatures near the transition point.
Abstract: We present a theory of the cholesteric blue phase, assuming a first-order cholesteric-isotropic transition. We show, on the basis of the Oseen-Frank elasticity equations, that the planar helix structure, generally associated with the cholesteric phase, becomes unstable at temperatures near the transition point. It transforms into a phase characterized by a network of disclination lines.

1,286 citations


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Journal ArticleDOI
10 Nov 2005-Nature
TL;DR: This study reports an experimental study of a condensed-matter system (graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon) in which electron transport is essentially governed by Dirac's (relativistic) equation and reveals a variety of unusual phenomena that are characteristic of two-dimensional Dirac fermions.
Abstract: Quantum electrodynamics (resulting from the merger of quantum mechanics and relativity theory) has provided a clear understanding of phenomena ranging from particle physics to cosmology and from astrophysics to quantum chemistry. The ideas underlying quantum electrodynamics also influence the theory of condensed matter, but quantum relativistic effects are usually minute in the known experimental systems that can be described accurately by the non-relativistic Schrodinger equation. Here we report an experimental study of a condensed-matter system (graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon) in which electron transport is essentially governed by Dirac's (relativistic) equation. The charge carriers in graphene mimic relativistic particles with zero rest mass and have an effective 'speed of light' c* approximately 10(6) m s(-1). Our study reveals a variety of unusual phenomena that are characteristic of two-dimensional Dirac fermions. In particular we have observed the following: first, graphene's conductivity never falls below a minimum value corresponding to the quantum unit of conductance, even when concentrations of charge carriers tend to zero; second, the integer quantum Hall effect in graphene is anomalous in that it occurs at half-integer filling factors; and third, the cyclotron mass m(c) of massless carriers in graphene is described by E = m(c)c*2. This two-dimensional system is not only interesting in itself but also allows access to the subtle and rich physics of quantum electrodynamics in a bench-top experiment.

18,958 citations

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TL;DR: Topological superconductors are new states of quantum matter which cannot be adiabatically connected to conventional insulators and semiconductors and are characterized by a full insulating gap in the bulk and gapless edge or surface states which are protected by time reversal symmetry.
Abstract: Topological insulators are new states of quantum matter which cannot be adiabatically connected to conventional insulators and semiconductors. They are characterized by a full insulating gap in the bulk and gapless edge or surface states which are protected by time-reversal symmetry. These topological materials have been theoretically predicted and experimentally observed in a variety of systems, including HgTe quantum wells, BiSb alloys, and Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 crystals. Theoretical models, materials properties, and experimental results on two-dimensional and three-dimensional topological insulators are reviewed, and both the topological band theory and the topological field theory are discussed. Topological superconductors have a full pairing gap in the bulk and gapless surface states consisting of Majorana fermions. The theory of topological superconductors is reviewed, in close analogy to the theory of topological insulators.

11,092 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems as discussed by the authors, where the primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport.
Abstract: Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems. This article reviews the current status of this subject, including both recent advances and well-established results. The primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport in semiconductors and metals. Spin transport differs from charge transport in that spin is a nonconserved quantity in solids due to spin-orbit and hyperfine coupling. The authors discuss in detail spin decoherence mechanisms in metals and semiconductors. Various theories of spin injection and spin-polarized transport are applied to hybrid structures relevant to spin-based devices and fundamental studies of materials properties. Experimental work is reviewed with the emphasis on projected applications, in which external electric and magnetic fields and illumination by light will be used to control spin and charge dynamics to create new functionalities not feasible or ineffective with conventional electronics.

9,158 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (MDE) on the risk of stroke.
Abstract: ABI : ankle–brachial index ACCORD : Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes ADVANCE : Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation AGREE : Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation AHA : American Heart Association apoA1 : apolipoprotein A1 apoB : apolipoprotein B CABG : coronary artery bypass graft surgery CARDS : Collaborative AtoRvastatin Diabetes Study CCNAP : Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions CHARISMA : Clopidogrel for High Athero-thrombotic Risk and Ischemic Stabilisation, Management, and Avoidance CHD : coronary heart disease CKD : chronic kidney disease COMMIT : Clopidogrel and Metoprolol in Myocardial Infarction Trial CRP : C-reactive protein CURE : Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Events CVD : cardiovascular disease DALYs : disability-adjusted life years DBP : diastolic blood pressure DCCT : Diabetes Control and Complications Trial ED : erectile dysfunction eGFR : estimated glomerular filtration rate EHN : European Heart Network EPIC : European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition EUROASPIRE : European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events GFR : glomerular filtration rate GOSPEL : Global Secondary Prevention Strategies to Limit Event Recurrence After MI GRADE : Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation HbA1c : glycated haemoglobin HDL : high-density lipoprotein HF-ACTION : Heart Failure and A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise TraiNing HOT : Hypertension Optimal Treatment Study HPS : Heart Protection Study HR : hazard ratio hsCRP : high-sensitivity C-reactive protein HYVET : Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial ICD : International Classification of Diseases IMT : intima-media thickness INVEST : International Verapamil SR/Trandolapril JTF : Joint Task Force LDL : low-density lipoprotein Lp(a) : lipoprotein(a) LpPLA2 : lipoprotein-associated phospholipase 2 LVH : left ventricular hypertrophy MATCH : Management of Atherothrombosis with Clopidogrel in High-risk Patients with Recent Transient Ischaemic Attack or Ischaemic Stroke MDRD : Modification of Diet in Renal Disease MET : metabolic equivalent MONICA : Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease NICE : National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence NRT : nicotine replacement therapy NSTEMI : non-ST elevation myocardial infarction ONTARGET : Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial OSA : obstructive sleep apnoea PAD : peripheral artery disease PCI : percutaneous coronary intervention PROactive : Prospective Pioglitazone Clinical Trial in Macrovascular Events PWV : pulse wave velocity QOF : Quality and Outcomes Framework RCT : randomized clinical trial RR : relative risk SBP : systolic blood pressure SCORE : Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project SEARCH : Study of the Effectiveness of Additional Reductions in Cholesterol and SHEP : Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program STEMI : ST-elevation myocardial infarction SU.FOL.OM3 : SUpplementation with FOlate, vitamin B6 and B12 and/or OMega-3 fatty acids Syst-Eur : Systolic Hypertension in Europe TNT : Treating to New Targets UKPDS : United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study VADT : Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial VALUE : Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use VITATOPS : VITAmins TO Prevent Stroke VLDL : very low-density lipoprotein WHO : World Health Organization ### 1.1 Introduction Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a chronic disorder developing insidiously throughout life and usually progressing to an advanced stage by the time symptoms occur. It remains the major cause of premature death in Europe, even though CVD mortality has …

7,482 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a new definition of order called topological order is proposed for two-dimensional systems in which no long-range order of the conventional type exists, and the possibility of a phase transition characterized by a change in the response of the system to an external perturbation is discussed in the context of a mean field type of approximation.
Abstract: A new definition of order called topological order is proposed for two-dimensional systems in which no long-range order of the conventional type exists. The possibility of a phase transition characterized by a change in the response of the system to an external perturbation is discussed in the context of a mean field type of approximation. The critical behaviour found in this model displays very weak singularities. The application of these ideas to the xy model of magnetism, the solid-liquid transition, and the neutral superfluid are discussed. This type of phase transition cannot occur in a superconductor nor in a Heisenberg ferromagnet.

6,371 citations