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Peter J. Lea

Bio: Peter J. Lea is an academic researcher from Lancaster University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Hordeum vulgare & Glutamine synthetase. The author has an hindex of 73, co-authored 271 publications receiving 18856 citations. Previous affiliations of Peter J. Lea include University of Khartoum & The Hertz Corporation.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review is to assess the mode of action and role of antioxidants in protecting plants from stress caused by the presence of heavy metals in the environment.
Abstract: The contamination of soils and water with metals has created a major environmental problem, leading to considerable losses in plant productivity and hazardous health effects. Exposure to toxic metals can intensify the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are continuously produced in both unstressed and stressed plants cells. Some of the ROS species are highly toxic and must be detoxified by cellular stress responses, if the plant is to survive and grow. The aim of this review is to assess the mode of action and role of antioxidants in protecting plants from stress caused by the presence of heavy metals in the environment.

1,065 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Glutamate signalling is examined from an evolutionary perspective, and the roles it might play in plants, both in endogenous signalling pathways and in determining the capacity of the root to respond to sources of organic N in the soil, are considered.
Abstract: Glutamate occupies a central position in amino acid metabolism in plants. The acidic amino acid is formed by the action of glutamate synthase, utilizing glutamine and 2-oxoglutarate. However, glutamate is also the substrate for the synthesis of glutamine from ammonia, catalysed by glutamine synthetase. The alpha-amino group of glutamate may be transferred to other amino acids by the action of a wide range of multispecific aminotransferases. In addition, both the carbon skeleton and alpha-amino group of glutamate form the basis for the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid, arginine, and proline. Finally, glutamate may be deaminated by glutamate dehydrogenase to form ammonia and 2-oxoglutarate. The possibility that the cellular concentrations of glutamate within the plant are homeostatically regulated by the combined action of these pathways is examined. Evidence that the well-known signalling properties of glutamate in animals may also extend to the plant kingdom is reviewed. The existence in plants of glutamate-activated ion channels and their possible relationship to the GLR gene family that is homologous to ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) in animals are discussed. Glutamate signalling is examined from an evolutionary perspective, and the roles it might play in plants, both in endogenous signalling pathways and in determining the capacity of the root to respond to sources of organic N in the soil, are considered.

840 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The possible role of photorespiration under stress conditions, such as drought, high salt concentrations and high light intensities encountered by alpine plants, is discussed.
Abstract: Photorespiration results from the oxygenase reaction catalysed by ribulose–1,5–bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. In this reaction glycollate–2–phosphate is produced and subsequently metabolized in the photorespiratory pathway to form the Calvin cycle intermediate glycerate–3–phosphate. During this metabolic process, CO2 and NH3 are produced and ATP and reducing equivalents are consumed, thus making photorespiration a wasteful process. However, precisely because of this inefficiency, photorespiration could serve as an energy sink preventing the overreduction of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and photoinhibition, especially under stress conditions that lead to reduced rates of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation. Furthermore, photorespiration provides metabolites for other metabolic processes, e.g. glycine for the synthesis of glutathione, which is also involved in stress protection. In this review, we describe the use of photorespiratory mutants to study the control and regulation of photorespiratory pathways. In addition, we discuss the possible role of photorespiration under stress conditions, such as drought, high salt concentrations and high light intensities encountered by alpine plants.

701 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is now clear evidence that soluble asparagine accumulates in most if not all plant organs during periods of low rates of protein synthesis and a plentiful supply of reduced nitrogen.
Abstract: Interest in plant asparagine has rapidly taken off over the past 5 years following the report that acrylamide, a neurotoxin and potential carcinogen, is present in cooked foods, particularly carbohydrate-rich foods such as wheat and potatoes which are subjected to roasting, baking or frying at high temperatures. Subsequent studies showed that acrylamide could be formed in foods by the thermal degradation of free asparagine in the presence of sugars in the Maillard reaction. In this article, our current knowledge of asparagine in plants and in particular its occurrence in cereal seeds and potatoes is reviewed and discussed in relation to acrylamide formation. There is now clear evidence that soluble asparagine accumulates in most if not all plant organs during periods of low rates of protein synthesis and a plentiful supply of reduced nitrogen. The accumulation of asparagine occurs during normal physiological processes such as seed germination and nitrogen transport. However, in addition, stress-induced asparagine accumulation can be caused by mineral deficiencies, drought, salt, toxic metals and pathogen attack. The properties and gene regulation of the enzymes involved in asparagine synthesis and breakdown in plants are discussed in detail.

577 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
18 Oct 1974-Nature
TL;DR: It is generally considered that glutamate dehydrogenase is the enzyme that is chiefly responsible for the incorporation of nitrogen into the α-amino group of amino acids in the leaves of higher plants, but this is suggested not to be the case.
Abstract: IT is generally considered that glutamate dehydrogenase (EC.1.4.1.3) is the enzyme that is chiefly responsible for the incorporation of nitrogen into the α-amino group of amino acids: We suggest that this is not the case in the leaves of higher plants.

531 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: From the kinetic data, it becomes evident that the reductive amination reaction is highly adaptive to the ammonium environment.

14,480 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: For the next few weeks the course is going to be exploring a field that’s actually older than classical population genetics, although the approach it’ll be taking to it involves the use of population genetic machinery.
Abstract: So far in this course we have dealt entirely with the evolution of characters that are controlled by simple Mendelian inheritance at a single locus. There are notes on the course website about gametic disequilibrium and how allele frequencies change at two loci simultaneously, but we didn’t discuss them. In every example we’ve considered we’ve imagined that we could understand something about evolution by examining the evolution of a single gene. That’s the domain of classical population genetics. For the next few weeks we’re going to be exploring a field that’s actually older than classical population genetics, although the approach we’ll be taking to it involves the use of population genetic machinery. If you know a little about the history of evolutionary biology, you may know that after the rediscovery of Mendel’s work in 1900 there was a heated debate between the “biometricians” (e.g., Galton and Pearson) and the “Mendelians” (e.g., de Vries, Correns, Bateson, and Morgan). Biometricians asserted that the really important variation in evolution didn’t follow Mendelian rules. Height, weight, skin color, and similar traits seemed to

9,847 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The biochemistry of ROS and their production sites, and ROS scavenging antioxidant defense machinery are described, which protects plants against oxidative stress damages.

8,259 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1980-Planta
TL;DR: Various aspects of the biochemistry of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in C3 plants are integrated into a form compatible with studies of gas exchange in leaves.
Abstract: Various aspects of the biochemistry of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in C3 plants are integrated into a form compatible with studies of gas exchange in leaves. These aspects include the kinetic properties of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase; the requirements of the photosynthetic carbon reduction and photorespiratory carbon oxidation cycles for reduced pyridine nucleotides; the dependence of electron transport on photon flux and the presence of a temperature dependent upper limit to electron transport. The measurements of gas exchange with which the model outputs may be compared include those of the temperature and partial pressure of CO2(p(CO2)) dependencies of quantum yield, the variation of compensation point with temperature and partial pressure of O2(p(O2)), the dependence of net CO2 assimilation rate on p(CO2) and irradiance, and the influence of p(CO2) and irradiance on the temperature dependence of assimilation rate.

7,312 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1998
TL;DR: A detailed account of current knowledge of the biosynthesis, compartmentation, and transport of these two important antioxidants, with emphasis on the unique insights and advances gained by molecular exploration are provided.
Abstract: To cope with environmental fluctuations and to prevent invasion by pathogens, plant metabolism must be flexible and dynamic. Active oxygen species, whose formation is accelerated under stress conditions, must be rapidly processed if oxidative damage is to be averted. The lifetime of active oxygen species within the cellular environment is determined by the antioxidative system, which provides crucial protection against oxidative damage. The antioxidative system comprises numerous enzymes and compounds of low molecular weight. While research into the former has benefited greatly from advances in molecular technology, the pathways by which the latter are synthesized have received comparatively little attention. The present review emphasizes the roles of ascorbate and glutathione in plant metabolism and stress tolerance. We provide a detailed account of current knowledge of the biosynthesis, compartmentation, and transport of these two important antioxidants, with emphasis on the unique insights and advances gained by molecular exploration.

5,450 citations