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Author

Phaklen Ehkan

Other affiliations: University of Birmingham
Bio: Phaklen Ehkan is an academic researcher from Universiti Malaysia Perlis. The author has contributed to research in topics: Wireless sensor network & Field-programmable gate array. The author has an hindex of 8, co-authored 82 publications receiving 269 citations. Previous affiliations of Phaklen Ehkan include University of Birmingham.

Papers published on a yearly basis

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This research proves that path loss prediction based on free space path loss (FSPL) and two-ray (2-Ray) propagation models is inaccurate in predicting loss in certain environments, as these approaches are simplistic and optimistic.

36 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim was to produce a system that can perform simultaneous identification of large numbers of voice streams in real time and has important potential applications in security and in automated call centre applications.
Abstract: In today's society, highly accurate personal identification systems are required. Passwords or pin numbers can be forgotten or forged and are no longer considered to offer a high level of security. The use of biological features, biometrics, is becoming widely accepted as the next level for security systems. Biometric-based speaker identification is a method of identifying persons from their voice. Speaker-specific characteristics exist in speech signals due to different speakers having different resonances of the vocal tract. These differences can be exploited by extracting feature vectors such as Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) from the speech signal. A well-known statistical modelling process, the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), then models the distribution of each speaker's MFCCs in a multidimensional acoustic space. The GMM-based speaker identification system has features that make it promising for hardware acceleration. This paper describes the hardware implementation for classification of a text-independent GMM-based speaker identification system. The aim was to produce a system that can perform simultaneous identification of large numbers of voice streams in real time. This has important potential applications in security and in automated call centre applications. A speedup factor of ninety was achieved compared to a software implementation on a standard PC.

33 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
21 Apr 2015
TL;DR: This review paper focuses on identifying the advantages and disadvantages in AOA estimation through RSSI and describes previous related work regarding of the angle of arrival estimations in particular through received signal strength indication (RSSI).
Abstract: Awareness of the physical location of each node is required by the many wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. There are various tracking schemes available such as time-of-flight, time difference of arrival and angle of arrival. This review paper focuses and describes previous related work regarding of the angle of arrival (AOA) estimations in particular through received signal strength indication (RSSI). AOA estimation is useful in tracking the desired signal and also improving the signal reception for movable users. With the AOA detection, the beam pattern of the antenna system can be reconfigured either mechanically or electrically to improve the signal reception. The AOA estimation with RSSI offers less complexity since the phase information of the signal will not be used to calculate the angle as usually practiced in the traditional phased array antenna systems. Hence this review focuses on identifying the advantages and disadvantages in AOA estimation through RSSI. The potential future direction of this research will be proposed at the end of this review.

18 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2015
TL;DR: This project has successfully demonstrated a smart receiver concept that allows multi-channel communication between the sensor nodes with Zigbee, Bluetooth and WiFi communication protocols.
Abstract: Rapidly growing Internet of Things (IoTs) concept have given rise to the concern regarding inter-communicability of sensor nodes practicing a multitude of standard and proprietary wireless communication protocols. A multi wireless communication protocol transceiver can facilitate sensor node to sensor node communication for a better quality of service and decision making in the IoTs environment. In this project, a multi wireless communication protocol receiver is designed and tested in a smart building monitoring system that collects and analyzes ambient data. The key objective of this project is to bridge the communication gap between sensor nodes especially in terms of wireless communication protocol. In overall, this project has successfully demonstrated a smart receiver concept that allows multi-channel communication between the sensor nodes with Zigbee, Bluetooth and WiFi communication protocols.

17 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A low-complexity, integer-based lifting wavelet transform was utilized to create a perceptual mapping model that mainly relies on a new texture mapping model called accumulative lifting difference (ALD), which is utilized in a proposed image watermarking algorithm to determine the maximum watermark embedding intensity that is not visible to the human eye.
Abstract: Watermark imperceptibility is a significant requirement for keeping watermarked images looking perceptually similar to the original ones. Effective watermark imperceptibility requires the creation of a perceptual model that simulates the human visual system to efficiently hide the watermark in places where the human eye cannot observe it. Current perceptual-based watermarking models use complex computations that are difficult to implement in embedded systems or in real-time applications. In this paper, a low-complexity, integer-based lifting wavelet transform was utilized to create a perceptual mapping model that mainly relies on a new texture mapping model called accumulative lifting difference (ALD). The ALD is combined with a simplified edge detection and luminance masking models to obtain a comprehensive perceptual mapping model that has high-noise tolerance and it is based on low-complexity calculations. The proposed model was 7% faster than the fastest pixel-based compared model with an enhanced average peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) gain of 2.78 dB. In comparison to the largest noise tolerance compared sub-band model, the proposed just noticeable distortion model had a PSNR gain of 1.8 dB and an execution speed that was 90% faster. The perceptual model is utilized in a proposed image watermarking algorithm to determine the maximum watermark embedding intensity that is not visible to the human eye. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm produced high-quality watermarked images and was robust against different geometric and non-geometric attacks. In addition to its usage in watermarking, the new perceptual model can be used in various image processing and real-time applications.

14 citations


Cited by
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Journal Article
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON

13,333 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: An exhaustive review of the research conducted in neuromorphic computing since the inception of the term is provided to motivate further work by illuminating gaps in the field where new research is needed.
Abstract: Neuromorphic computing has come to refer to a variety of brain-inspired computers, devices, and models that contrast the pervasive von Neumann computer architecture This biologically inspired approach has created highly connected synthetic neurons and synapses that can be used to model neuroscience theories as well as solve challenging machine learning problems The promise of the technology is to create a brain-like ability to learn and adapt, but the technical challenges are significant, starting with an accurate neuroscience model of how the brain works, to finding materials and engineering breakthroughs to build devices to support these models, to creating a programming framework so the systems can learn, to creating applications with brain-like capabilities In this work, we provide a comprehensive survey of the research and motivations for neuromorphic computing over its history We begin with a 35-year review of the motivations and drivers of neuromorphic computing, then look at the major research areas of the field, which we define as neuro-inspired models, algorithms and learning approaches, hardware and devices, supporting systems, and finally applications We conclude with a broad discussion on the major research topics that need to be addressed in the coming years to see the promise of neuromorphic computing fulfilled The goals of this work are to provide an exhaustive review of the research conducted in neuromorphic computing since the inception of the term, and to motivate further work by illuminating gaps in the field where new research is needed

570 citations

01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: This rfid handbook fundamentals and applications in contactless smart cards and identification helps people to read a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon instead of juggled with some malicious bugs inside their laptop.
Abstract: Thank you for reading rfid handbook fundamentals and applications in contactless smart cards and identification. As you may know, people have search numerous times for their chosen novels like this rfid handbook fundamentals and applications in contactless smart cards and identification, but end up in malicious downloads. Rather than reading a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon, instead they juggled with some malicious bugs inside their laptop.

570 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
03 Aug 2017-Sensors
TL;DR: This review outlines the recent applications of WSNs in agriculture research as well as classifies and compares various wireless communication protocols, the taxonomy of energy-efficient and energy harvesting techniques for W SNs that can be used in agricultural monitoring systems, and comparison between early research works on agriculture-based WSNS.
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be used in agriculture to provide farmers with a large amount of information. Precision agriculture (PA) is a management strategy that employs information technology to improve quality and production. Utilizing wireless sensor technologies and management tools can lead to a highly effective, green agriculture. Based on PA management, the same routine to a crop regardless of site environments can be avoided. From several perspectives, field management can improve PA, including the provision of adequate nutrients for crops and the wastage of pesticides for the effective control of weeds, pests, and diseases. This review outlines the recent applications of WSNs in agriculture research as well as classifies and compares various wireless communication protocols, the taxonomy of energy-efficient and energy harvesting techniques for WSNs that can be used in agricultural monitoring systems, and comparison between early research works on agriculture-based WSNs. The challenges and limitations of WSNs in the agricultural domain are explored, and several power reduction and agricultural management techniques for long-term monitoring are highlighted. These approaches may also increase the number of opportunities for processing Internet of Things (IoT) data.

405 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1970
TL;DR: This chapter discusses different aspects of cancer, a group of many different disorders affecting the different parts of the body, and cancer of one part is quite different from cancer of another part.
Abstract: This chapter discusses different aspects of cancer. Many of the attitudes toward cancer today are similar to the popular prejudices that were held about infections before the germ theory was worked out and before the causes of different infections were understood. One of the popular misconceptions about cancer is that it is a single disease. In fact, cancer is a group of many different disorders affecting the different parts of the body, and cancer of one part is quite different from cancer of another part. It is a common belief that cancer is always incurable, but in truth, 70%–90% of patients can be completely cured of certain types of cancers. It is also believed that cancer can be transmitted by coming in contact with a cancer patient and that it is caused by dirty living, by knocks or blows, or by tinned foods. Doctors have recognized that lung cancer is associated with cigarette smoking even though they have not completely worked out the combination of chemicals that causes this effect.

403 citations