Author

# Pierre Lallemand

Other affiliations: École Normale Supérieure, University of Paris-Sud

Bio: Pierre Lallemand is an academic researcher from Centre national de la recherche scientifique. The author has contributed to research in topics: Lattice Boltzmann methods & Boltzmann equation. The author has an hindex of 32, co-authored 77 publications receiving 12389 citations. Previous affiliations of Pierre Lallemand include École Normale Supérieure & University of Paris-Sud.

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TL;DR: In this article, the Navier-Stokes equation is obtained from the kinetic BGK equation at the second-order approximation with a properly chosen equilibrium distribution, with a relaxation parameter that influences the stability of the new scheme.

Abstract: We propose the lattice BGK models, as an alternative to lattice gases or the lattice Boltzmann equation, to obtain an efficient numerical scheme for the simulation of fluid dynamics. With a properly chosen equilibrium distribution, the Navier-Stokes equation is obtained from the kinetic BGK equation at the second-order of approximation. Compared to lattice gases, the present model is noise-free, has Galileian invariance and a velocity-independent pressure. It involves a relaxation parameter that influences the stability of the new scheme. Numerical simulations are shown to confirm the speed of sound and the shear viscosity.

4,481 citations

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TL;DR: The generalized hydrodynamics (the wave vector dependence of the transport coefficients) of a generalized lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) is studied in detail and linear analysis of the LBE evolution operator is equivalent to Chapman-Enskog analysis in the long-wavelength limit (wave vector k=0).

Abstract: The generalized hydrodynamics (the wave vector dependence of the transport coefficients) of a generalized lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) is studied in detail. The generalized lattice Boltzmann equation is constructed in moment space rather than in discrete velocity space. The generalized hydrodynamics of the model is obtained by solving the dispersion equation of the linearized LBE either analytically by using perturbation technique or numerically. The proposed LBE model has a maximum number of adjustable parameters for the given set of discrete velocities. Generalized hydrodynamics characterizes dispersion, dissipation (hyper-viscosities), anisotropy, and lack of Galilean invariance of the model, and can be applied to select the values of the adjustable parameters which optimize the properties of the model. The proposed generalized hydrodynamic analysis also provides some insights into stability and proper initial conditions for LBE simulations. The stability properties of some 2D LBE models are analyzed and compared with each other in the parameter space of the mean streaming velocity and the viscous relaxation time. The procedure described in this work can be applied to analyze other LBE models. As examples, LBE models with various interpolation schemes are analyzed. Numerical results on shear flow with an initially discontinuous velocity profile (shock) with or without a constant streaming velocity are shown to demonstrate the dispersion effects in the LBE model; the results compare favorably with our theoretical analysis. We also show that whereas linear analysis of the LBE evolution operator is equivalent to Chapman-Enskog analysis in the long wave-length limit (wave vector k = 0), it can also provide results for large values of k. Such results are important for the stability and other hydrodynamic properties of the LBE method and cannot be obtained through Chapman-Enskog analysis.

1,859 citations

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15 Mar 2002-Philosophical transactions - Royal Society. Mathematical, physical and engineering sciences

TL;DR: Simulation of a diagonally lid–driven cavity flow in three dimensions clearly demonstrate the superior numerical stability of the multiple–relaxation–time lattice Boltzmann equation over the popular lattice Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook equation.

Abstract: This article provides a concise exposition of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation, with examples of 15-velocity and 19-velocity models in three dimensions. Simulation of a diagonally lid-driven cavity flow in three dimensions at Re = 500 and 2000 is performed. The results clearly demonstrate the superior numerical stability of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation over the popular lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation.

1,733 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the velocity boundary condition for curved boundaries in the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) was studied for moving boundaries by combination of the "bounce-back" scheme and spatial interpolations of first or second order.

Abstract: We study the velocity boundary condition for curved boundaries in the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE). We propose a LBE boundary condition for moving boundaries by combination of the “bounce-back” scheme and spatial interpolations of first or second order. The proposed boundary condition is a simple, robust, efficient, and accurate scheme. Second-order accuracy of the boundary condition is demonstrated for two cases: (1) time-dependent two-dimensional circular Couette flow and (2) two-dimensional steady flow past a periodic array of circular cylinders (flow through the porous media of cylinders). For the former case, the lattice Boltzmann solution is compared with the analytic solution of the Navier–Stokes equation. For the latter case, the lattice Boltzmann solution is compared with a finite-element solution of the Navier–Stokes equation. The lattice Boltzmann solutions for both flows agree very well with the solutions of the Navier–Stokes equations. We also analyze the torque due to the momentum transfer between the fluid and the boundary for two initial conditions: (a) impulsively started cylinder and the fluid at rest, and (b) uniformly rotating fluid and the cylinder at rest.

1,063 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown for a class of D-dimensional lattice gas models how the macrodynamical equations for the densities of microscopically conserved quantities can be systematically derived from the underlying exact ''microdynamical'' Boolean equations.

Abstract: Hydrodynamical phenomena can be simulated by discrete lattice gas models obeing cellular automata rules (U. Frisch, B. Hasslacher, and Y. Pomeau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1505, (1986); D. d'Humieres, P. Lallemand, and U. Frisch, Europhys. Lett. 2, 291, (1986)). It is here shown for a class of D-dimensional lattice gas models how the macrodynamical (large-scale) equations for the densities of microscopically conserved quantities can be systematically derived from the underlying exact ''microdynamical'' Boolean equations. With suitable restrictions on the crystallographic symmetries of the lattice and after proper limits are taken, various standard fluid dynamical equations are obtained, including the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in two and three dimensions. The transport coefficients appearing in the macrodynamical equations are obtained using variants of fluctuation-dissipation and Boltzmann formalisms adapted to fully discrete situations.

990 citations

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TL;DR: An overview of the lattice Boltzmann method, a parallel and efficient algorithm for simulating single-phase and multiphase fluid flows and for incorporating additional physical complexities, is presented.

Abstract: We present an overview of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), a parallel and efficient algorithm for simulating single-phase and multiphase fluid flows and for incorporating additional physical complexities. The LBM is especially useful for modeling complicated boundary conditions and multiphase interfaces. Recent extensions of this method are described, including simulations of fluid turbulence, suspension flows, and reaction diffusion systems.

6,565 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a general technique for simulating solid-fluid suspensions is described, which combines Newtonian dynamics of the solid particles with a discretized Boltzmann equation for the fluid phase; the many-body hydrodynamic interactions are fully accounted for, both in the creeping flow regime and at higher Reynolds numbers.

Abstract: A new and very general technique for simulating solid–fluid suspensions is described; its most important feature is that the computational cost scales linearly with the number of particles. The method combines Newtonian dynamics of the solid particles with a discretized Boltzmann equation for the fluid phase; the many-body hydrodynamic interactions are fully accounted for, both in the creeping-flow regime and at higher Reynolds numbers. Brownian motion of the solid particles arises spontaneously from stochastic fluctuations in the fluid stress tensor, rather than from random forces or displacements applied directly to the particles. In this paper, the theoretical foundations of the technique are laid out, illustrated by simple analytical and numerical examples; in a companion paper (Part 2), extensive numerical tests of the method, for stationary flows, time-dependent flows, and finite-Reynolds-number flows, are reported.

2,073 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, Chen et al. used the half-way wall bounceback boundary condition for the 2-D Poiseuille flow with forcing to obtain second-order accuracy for the 3-D square duct flow.

Abstract: Pressure (density) and velocity boundary conditions inside a flow domain are studied for 2-D and 3-D lattice Boltzmann BGK models (LBGK) and a new method to specify these conditions are proposed. These conditions are constructed in consistency of the wall boundary condition based on an idea of bounceback of non-equilibrium distribution. When these conditions are used together with the improved incompressible LBGK model by Zou et al., the simulation results recover the analytical solution of the plane Poiseuille flow driven by pressure (density) difference with machine accuracy. Since the half-way wall bounceback boundary condition is very easy to implement and was shown theoretically to give second-order accuracy for the 2-D Poiseuille flow with forcing, it is used with pressure (density) inlet/outlet conditions proposed in this paper and in Chen et al. to study the 2-D Poiseuille flow and the 3-D square duct flow. The numerical results are approximately second-order accurate. The magnitude of the error of the half-way wall bounceback is comparable with that using some other published boundary conditions. Besides, the bounceback condition has a much better stability behavior than that of other boundary conditions.

2,001 citations

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TL;DR: The generalized hydrodynamics (the wave vector dependence of the transport coefficients) of a generalized lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) is studied in detail and linear analysis of the LBE evolution operator is equivalent to Chapman-Enskog analysis in the long-wavelength limit (wave vector k=0).

Abstract: The generalized hydrodynamics (the wave vector dependence of the transport coefficients) of a generalized lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) is studied in detail. The generalized lattice Boltzmann equation is constructed in moment space rather than in discrete velocity space. The generalized hydrodynamics of the model is obtained by solving the dispersion equation of the linearized LBE either analytically by using perturbation technique or numerically. The proposed LBE model has a maximum number of adjustable parameters for the given set of discrete velocities. Generalized hydrodynamics characterizes dispersion, dissipation (hyper-viscosities), anisotropy, and lack of Galilean invariance of the model, and can be applied to select the values of the adjustable parameters which optimize the properties of the model. The proposed generalized hydrodynamic analysis also provides some insights into stability and proper initial conditions for LBE simulations. The stability properties of some 2D LBE models are analyzed and compared with each other in the parameter space of the mean streaming velocity and the viscous relaxation time. The procedure described in this work can be applied to analyze other LBE models. As examples, LBE models with various interpolation schemes are analyzed. Numerical results on shear flow with an initially discontinuous velocity profile (shock) with or without a constant streaming velocity are shown to demonstrate the dispersion effects in the LBE model; the results compare favorably with our theoretical analysis. We also show that whereas linear analysis of the LBE evolution operator is equivalent to Chapman-Enskog analysis in the long wave-length limit (wave vector k = 0), it can also provide results for large values of k. Such results are important for the stability and other hydrodynamic properties of the LBE method and cannot be obtained through Chapman-Enskog analysis.

1,859 citations

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TL;DR: The half-way wall bounceback boundary condition is also used with the pressure ~density! inlet/outlet conditions proposed in this article to study 2-D Poiseuille flow and 3-D square duct flow.

Abstract: Pressure ~density! and velocity boundary conditions are studied for 2-D and 3-D lattice Boltzmann BGK models ~LBGK! and a new method to specify these conditions is proposed. These conditions are constructed in consistency with the wall boundary condition, based on the idea of bounceback of the non-equilibrium distribution. When these conditions are used together with the incompressible LBGK model @J. Stat. Phys. 81 ,3 5 ~1995!# the simulation results recover the analytical solution of the plane Poiseuille flow driven by a pressure ~density! difference. The half-way wall bounceback boundary condition is also used with the pressure ~density! inlet/outlet conditions proposed in this paper and in Phys. Fluids 8, 2527 ~1996! to study 2-D Poiseuille flow and 3-D square duct flow. The numerical results are approximately second-order accurate. The magnitude of the error of the half-way wall bounceback boundary condition is comparable with that of other published boundary conditions and it has better stability behavior. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. @S1070-6631~97!03406-5#

1,854 citations