Other affiliations: Johns Hopkins University, North Dakota State University, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre ...read more
Bio: Pijush Ghosh is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Madras. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Montmorillonite & Coating. The author has an hindex of 14, co-authored 58 publication(s) receiving 823 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Pijush Ghosh include Johns Hopkins University & North Dakota State University.
Topics: Montmorillonite, Coating, Polymer, Epoxy, Folding (chemistry)
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, a combination of experimental (photoacoustic FTIR, XRD) and computational (molecular dynamics (MD)) techniques was used to evaluate molecular interactions in organically modified clay and polymer clay nanocomposite.
Abstract: In this work we have evaluated molecular interactions in organically modified clay and polymer clay nanocomposite using a combination of experimental (photoacoustic FTIR, XRD) and computational (molecular dynamics (MD)) techniques. The FTIR data reveals hydrogen bond and ionic bond interaction between functional end groups of organic modifier and surface oxygen of interlayer clay sheet lying in the organically modified clay; and, the hydrogen bond formation between intercalated polymer and organic modifier and surface oxygen of clay sheet lying in the interlayer clay gallery in the polymer clay nanocomposite. In this work we report the nature of interactions between clay and polymer, clay and organic modifier in polymer–clay nanocomposites through experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.
01 Apr 2005-Clays and Clay Minerals
TL;DR: In this paper, an atomic model of pyrophyllite interlayer was constructed using steered molecular dynamics simulations and external forces were applied to individual atoms to study the response of the model to applied forces.
Abstract: Pyrophyllite is the precursor to other smectite-group minerals which exhibit swelling. The mineral structure of pyrophyllite can lead to other minerals in the smectite group, including montmorillonite, through appropriate isomorphous substitutions. In this work, an atomic model of the pyrophyllite interlayer was constructed. The response of the interlayer was evaluated using steered molecular dynamics simulations. In steered molecular dynamics, external forces were applied to individual atoms to study the response of the model to applied forces. In this work, forces are applied to the surface clay atoms to evaluate the displacement vs. applied stress in the interlayer between clay layers. This paper describes the construction of the model, the simulation procedure, and the results of the simulations which show that under the applied loading, deformation occurs mainly in the interlayer. The clay layers show relatively little deformation. The results show that the relationship between applied stress and displacement of the interlayer is linear. The stress-deformation relationship for the interlayer is presented.
22 Feb 2007-Biomacromolecules
TL;DR: The results indicate that the proximity of aragonite has a significant effect on the unfolding mechanisms of proteins when pulled, which will provide very useful information in designing synthetic biocomposites, as well as further the understanding of mechanical response in structural composites in nature.
Abstract: The organic phase of nacre, which is composed primarily of proteins, has an extremely high elastic modulus as compared to that of bulk proteins, and also undergoes large deformation before failure. One reason for this unusually high modulus could be the mineral-organic interactions. In this work, we elucidate the specific role of mineral proximity on the structural response of proteins in biological structural composites such as nacre through molecular modeling. The "glycine-serine" domain of a nacre protein Lustrin A has been used as a model system. It is found that the amount of work needed to unfold is significantly higher when the GS domain is pulled in the proximity of aragonite. These results indicate that the proximity of aragonite has a significant effect on the unfolding mechanisms of proteins when pulled. These results will provide very useful information in designing synthetic biocomposites, as well as further our understanding of mechanical response in structural composites in nature.
18 Aug 2005-Biomacromolecules
TL;DR: The amino acids arginine and lysine are used as modifiers and the intercalation and mechanical behavior of the interlayer spacing with these amino acids as inclusions under compression and tension are studied using molecular dynamics simulations.
Abstract: Nanosized montmorillonite clay dispersed in small amounts in polymer results in polymer nanocomposites having superior engineering properties compared to those of the native polymer. These nanoinclusions are created by treating clay with an organic modifier which makes clay organophilic and results in intercalation or exfoliation of the montmorillonite. The modifiers used are usually long carbon chains with alkylammonium or alkylphosphonium cations. In this work, we have investigated the use of some alternative molecules which can act as modifiers for clay composites using clay for reinforcing a matrix of biopeptides or proteins. Such composites have potential applications in the fields of biomedical engineering and pharmaceutical science. In this work, the amino acids arginine and lysine are used as modifiers. The intercalation and mechanical behavior of the interlayer spacing with these amino acids as inclusions under compression and tension are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Significant differences in the responses are observed. This work also provides an insight into the orientation and interaction of amino acids in the interlayer under different stress paths.
TL;DR: The paper describes the construction of the model, the simulation procedure, and results of the simulations, which provide quantitative stress deformation relationships as well as an insight into the molecular interactions taking place between the clay surface and interlayer water and cations.
Abstract: The mechanical response of the interlayer of hydrated montmorillonite was evaluated using steered molecular dynamics. An atomic model of the sodium montmorillonite was previously constructed. In the current study, the interlayer of the model was hydrated with multiple layers of water. Using steered molecular dynamics, external forces were applied to individual atoms of the clay surface, and the response of the model was studied. The displacement versus applied stress and stress versus strain relationships of various parts of the interlayer were studied. The paper describes the construction of the model, the simulation procedure, and results of the simulations. Some results of the previous work are further interpreted in the light of the current research. The simulations provide quantitative stress deformation relationships as well as an insight into the molecular interactions taking place between the clay surface and interlayer water and cations.
01 May 1993
TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.
Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.
01 Feb 2008-Progress in Polymer Science
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the recent advances in the fundamental understanding of polymer nanocomposites reinforced by nanofillers is presented, including the thermodynamics and kinetics of formation, molecular structure and dynamics, morphology, processing behaviors, and mechanical properties.
Abstract: Polymer nanocomposites offer a wide range of promising applications because of their much enhanced properties arising from the reinforcement of nanoparticles. However, further development of such nanomaterials depends on the fundamental understanding of their hierarchical structures and behaviors which requires multiscale modeling and simulation strategies to provide seamless coupling among various length and time scales. In this review, we first introduce some computational methods that have been applied to polymer nanocomposites, covering from molecular scale (e.g., molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo), microscale (e.g., Brownian dynamics, dissipative particle dynamics, lattice Boltzmann, time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau method, dynamic density functional theory method) to mesoscale and macroscale (e.g., micromechanics, equivalent-continuum and self-similar approaches, finite element method). Then, we discuss in some detail their applications to various aspects of polymer nanocomposites, including the thermodynamics and kinetics of formation, molecular structure and dynamics, morphology, processing behaviors, and mechanical properties. Finally, we address the importance of multiscale simulation strategies in the understanding and predictive capabilities of polymer nanocomposites in which few studies have been reported. The present review aims to summarize the recent advances in the fundamental understanding of polymer nanocomposites reinforced by nanofillers (e.g., spherical nanoparticles, nanotubes, clay platelets) and stimulate further research in this area.
28 Jan 2008-Chemical Society Reviews
TL;DR: This critical review attempts to assess issues from the viewpoint of traditional composites thereby embedding these new materials in a wider context to which conventional composite theory can be applied.
Abstract: The surge of interest in and scientific publications on the structure and properties of nanocomposites has made it rather difficult for the novice to comprehend the physical structure of these new materials and the relationship between their properties and those of the conventional range of composite materials. Some of the questions that arise are: How should the reinforcement volume fraction be calculated? How can the clay gallery contents be assessed? How can the ratio of intercalate to exfoliate be found? Does polymerization occur in the clay galleries? How is the crystallinity of semi-crystalline polymers affected by intercalation? What role do the mobilities of adsorbed molecules and clay platelets have? How much information can conventional X-ray diffraction offer? What is the thermodynamic driving force for intercalation and exfoliation? What is the elastic modulus of clay platelets? The growth of computer simulation techniques applied to clay materials has been rapid, with insight gained into the structure, dynamics and reactivity of polymer–clay systems. However these techniques operate on the basis of approximations, which may not be clear to the non-specialist. This critical review attempts to assess these issues from the viewpoint of traditional composites thereby embedding these new materials in a wider context to which conventional composite theory can be applied. (210 references)
15 Apr 2019-Chemical Society Reviews
TL;DR: Promising applications of metal nanoclusters are reviewed, with particular focus on their potential to impact the fields of chemical sensing, bio-imaging, and bio-labeling, and scope for improvements and future perspectives of these novel nanomaterials are highlighted.
Abstract: Due to their atomically precise structures and intriguing chemical/physical properties, metal nanoclusters are an emerging class of modular nanomaterials. Photo-luminescence (PL) is one of their most fascinating properties, due to the plethora of promising PL-based applications, such as chemical sensing, bio-imaging, cell labeling, phototherapy, drug delivery, and so on. However, the PL of most current nanoclusters is still unsatisfactory-the PL quantum yield (QY) is relatively low (generally lower than 20%), the emission lifetimes are generally in the nanosecond range, and the emitted color is always red (emission wavelengths of above 630 nm). To address these shortcomings, several strategies have been adopted, and are reviewed herein: capped-ligand engineering, metallic kernel alloying, aggregation-induced emission, self-assembly of nanocluster building blocks into cluster-based networks, and adjustments on external environment factors. We further review promising applications of these fluorescent nanoclusters, with particular focus on their potential to impact the fields of chemical sensing, bio-imaging, and bio-labeling. Finally, scope for improvements and future perspectives of these novel nanomaterials are highlighted as well. Our intended audience is the broader scientific community interested in the fluorescence of metal nanoclusters, and our review hopefully opens up new horizons for these scientists to manipulate PL properties of nanoclusters. This review is based on publications available up to December 2018.
01 Jan 2007-Macromolecules
TL;DR: In this paper, a copolymer latex, with function groups that strongly interact with the surface of the clay nanoplatelet and glass transition temperature lower than room temperature, was synthesized using water as the intercalation agent through the solution process.
Abstract: The mechanics of nanocomposites is critical in the design of nanomaterials with desirable properties In this paper, the mechanics of polymer−clay nanocomposites is studied using a designed polymer and solution nanocomposite synthesis A copolymer latex, with function groups that strongly interact with the surface of the clay nanoplatelet and glass-transition temperature lower than room temperature, was synthesized Uniformly dispersed nanocomposites were then generated using water as the intercalation agent through the solution process The chain mobility in the nanocomposites is greatly reduced as studied by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and dielectric thermal analysis (DETA) The modulus of the composite increases significantly The modulus enhancement strongly relates to the volume of the added clay as well as the volume of the constrained polymer This modulus enhancement follows a power law with the content of the clay and is modeled well by Mooney's equation for this soft-polymer-based