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Prabhjot Kaur

Bio: Prabhjot Kaur is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Madras. The author has contributed to research in topics: Cognitive radio & Spectrum management. The author has an hindex of 11, co-authored 35 publications receiving 311 citations. Previous affiliations of Prabhjot Kaur include ITM University, Gurgaon, Haryana.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A recent study conducted by the Council for Energy, Environment, and Water (CEEW) across six states (Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and Odisha) found that about 50% of the households had no electricity despite having a grid connection as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: It is well established that access to energy is closely linked with socioeconomic development. India houses the largest share of the world's population deprived of electricity with about 237 million people lacking access (International Energy Agency). At the same time, in India, many households that do have access to electricity lack an uninterrupted and quality power supply. A recent study conducted by the Council for Energy, Environment, and Water (CEEW) across six states (Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and Odisha), found that about 50% of the households had no electricity despite having a grid connection. This indicates that there is an immediate need to address the quality, affordability, and reliability of the power supply in addition to extending the grid footprint.

84 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
07 Jun 2015
TL;DR: In this article, an efficient and affordable solar DC solution for powering off-grid homes is presented. But, the proposed solution is not suitable for the use of the generated PV power efficiently.
Abstract: India is a power deficit country and one third of its homes are off grid or near off grid. This paper presents an efficient and affordable Solar DC solution for powering such homes. Though several solutions have emerged in the past for powering these homes, those have been expensive and energy inefficient. These solutions rely on several DC to AC and AC to DC conversions, to feed the widely used AC home loads, thus, wasting a large chunk of the expensive power. The proposed Solar DC solution for off-grid homes (OGH) is developed to use the generated PV power efficiently. With this solution, the panel and battery size is reduced by 2 to 2.5 times and the cost to power a house is reduced to nearly half the cost of the existing solutions. The paper also presents a techno-economic comparison between the proposed OGH solution with some existing solar systems.

43 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on linking proposed smart city strategies to smart village policies to ensure that rural youth have improved opportunities for employment through ICT initiatives to ensure digital inclusion, using primary surveys undertaken in India.
Abstract: The literature on Smart Cities has not as yet paid adequate attention to the rural sector, and the potential in villages for creating smart and sustainable solutions for the 21st century. This paper focuses on linking proposed smart city strategies to smart village policies to ensure that rural youth have improved opportunities for employment through ICT initiatives to ensure digital inclusion, using primary surveys undertaken in India. The motivation was to understand how mobile telephony could be a catalyst to create Smart Villages in India, where young people can chart out new pathways to realize their aspirations with regard to tertiary education and new avenues for diversifying into rural non-agricultural employment. We use data obtained from a household survey in villages in the states of Punjab and Tamil Nadu to examine the mobile phone usage preferences of rural educated youth to identify the way forward in improving the accessibility of services on the supply side. We make the case that where youth are using mobile phone access to increase their social information base it is indeed possible that the new social media groups formed by rural youth become a powerful conduit for generating new employment opportunities. The key to accessing this solution is to use a demand driven model for mobile services that would permit a bottom of governance model to generate sustainable growth of enterprises and improved human development of these villages.

40 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The target-driven approach of the prime minister?s office helped to expedite the effort as mentioned in this paper and the social obligation to extend the electric grid to each village and then to at least 10% of its homes no longer had a fundamental bottleneck.
Abstract: As the Leisang village in Manipur received electricity in April 2018, the prime minister of India announced that every Indian village is now electrified. A village is considered electrified in India when 10% of its homes receive electricity. However, the number of village homes that have electricity has now reached 84%, with some 41 million households still without power. This village-electrification program has been going on for many years. Until a few years back, there was a large shortage of power with power demand exceeding supply, leading to no/a weak push to extend the grid to the village. Over the last few years, when more coal power plants became operational, the supply strengthened. At the same time, the energy costs for the solar and wind powerattained grid parity, enabling the addition of significant renewable power. Simultaneously, the power grid was strengthened, and India attained a single national grid on 31 December 2013, such that power generated in surplus areas could be transported to deficit regions. All of this helped in surplus power generation because the demand did not pick up much in recent years. The social obligation to extend the electric grid to each village and then to at least 10% of its homes no longer had a fundamental bottleneck. The target-driven approach of the prime minister?s office helped to expedite the effort.

28 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: According to a recent report by the International Energy Agency [1], although India is the second most populous country on earth, it ranks far behind other countries in terms of per capita electricity consumption and carbon footprint.
Abstract: According to a recent report by the International Energy Agency [1], although India is the second most populous country on earth, it ranks far behind other countries in terms of per capita electricity consumption and carbon footprint. As shown in Table 1, India is well below the world average in both per capita electricity consumption and carbon footprint indices. However, with an ambitious plan for rapid growth and economic development, India is poised to quickly increase its carbon footprint and become a major contributor to preventing global climate change.

25 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The state-of-the-art dc microgrid technology that covers ac interfaces, architectures, possible grounding schemes, power quality issues, and communication systems is presented.
Abstract: To meet the fast-growing energy demand and, at the same time, tackle environmental concerns resulting from conventional energy sources, renewable energy sources are getting integrated in power networks to ensure reliable and affordable energy for the public and industrial sectors However, the integration of renewable energy in the ageing electrical grids can result in new risks/challenges, such as security of supply, base load energy capacity, seasonal effects, and so on Recent research and development in microgrids have proved that microgrids, which are fueled by renewable energy sources and managed by smart grids (use of smart sensors and smart energy management system), can offer higher reliability and more efficient energy systems in a cost-effective manner Further improvement in the reliability and efficiency of electrical grids can be achieved by utilizing dc distribution in microgrid systems DC microgrid is an attractive technology in the modern electrical grid system because of its natural interface with renewable energy sources, electric loads, and energy storage systems In the recent past, an increase in research work has been observed in the area of dc microgrid, which brings this technology closer to practical implementation This paper presents the state-of-the-art dc microgrid technology that covers ac interfaces, architectures, possible grounding schemes, power quality issues, and communication systems The advantages of dc grids can be harvested in many applications to improve their reliability and efficiency This paper also discusses benefits and challenges of using dc grid systems in several applications This paper highlights the urgent need of standardizations for dc microgrid technology and presents recent updates in this area

505 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The scope of this work is to give an overview of the problem of spectrum assignment in cognitive radio networks, presenting the state-of-the-art proposals that have appeared in the literature, analyzing the criteria for selecting the most suitable portion of the spectrum and showing the most common approaches and techniques used to solve the spectrum assignment problem.
Abstract: Cognitive radio (CR) has emerged as a promising technology to exploit the unused portions of spectrum in an opportunistic manner. The fixed spectrum allocation of governmental agencies results in unused portions of spectrum, which are called "spectrum holes" or "white spaces". CR technology overcomes this issue, allowing devices to sense the spectrum for unused portions and use the most suitable ones, according to some pre-defined criteria. Spectrum assignment is a key mechanism that limits the interference between CR devices and licensed users, enabling a more efficient usage of the wireless spectrum. Interference is a key factor that limits the performance in wireless networks. The scope of this work is to give an overview of the problem of spectrum assignment in cognitive radio networks, presenting the state-of-the-art proposals that have appeared in the literature, analyzing the criteria for selecting the most suitable portion of the spectrum and showing the most common approaches and techniques used to solve the spectrum assignment problem. Finally, an analysis of the techniques and approaches is presented, discussing also the open issues for future research in this area.

382 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An up-to-date survey of spectrum decision in CR networks (CRNs) is provided and issues of spectrum characterization (including PU activity modelling), spectrum selection and CR reconfiguration are addressed.
Abstract: Spectrum decision is the ability of a cognitive radio (CR) to select the best available spectrum band to satisfy secondary users' (SUs') quality of service (QoS) requirements, without causing harmful interference to licensed or primary users (PUs). Each CR performs spectrum sensing to identify the available spectrum bands and the spectrum decision process selects from these available bands for opportunistic use. Spectrum decision constitutes an important topic which has not been adequately explored in CR research. Spectrum decision involves spectrum characterization, spectrum selection and CR reconfiguration functions. After the available spectrum has been identified, the first step is to characterize it based not only on the current radio environment conditions, but also on the PU activities. The second step involves spectrum selection, whereby the most appropriate spectrum band is selected to satisfy SUs' QoS requirements. Finally, the CR should be able to reconfigure its transmission parameters to allow communication on the selected band. Key to spectrum characterization is PU activity modelling, which is commonly based on historical data to provide the means for predicting future traffic patterns in a given spectrum band. This paper provides an up-to-date survey of spectrum decision in CR networks (CRNs) and addresses issues of spectrum characterization (including PU activity modelling), spectrum selection and CR reconfiguration. For each of these issues, we highlight key open research challenges. We also review practical implementations of spectrum decision in several CR platforms.

307 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The challenges of DC microgrid protection are investigated from various aspects including, dc fault current characteristics, ground systems, fault detection methods, protective devices, and fault location methods.
Abstract: DC microgrids have attracted significant attention over the last decade in both academia and industry. DC microgrids have demonstrated superiority over AC microgrids with respect to reliability, efficiency, control simplicity, integration of renewable energy sources, and connection of dc loads. Despite these numerous advantages, designing and implementing an appropriate protection system for dc microgrids remains a significant challenge. The challenge stems from the rapid rise of dc fault current which must be extinguished in the absence of naturally occurring zero crossings, potentially leading to sustained arcs. In this paper, the challenges of DC microgrid protection are investigated from various aspects including, dc fault current characteristics, ground systems, fault detection methods, protective devices, and fault location methods. In each part, a comprehensive review has been carried out. Finally, future trends in the protection of DC microgrids are briefly discussed.

188 citations