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Pradipta Biswas

Bio: Pradipta Biswas is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Science. The author has contributed to research in topics: Eye tracking & Gaze. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 137 publications receiving 1067 citations. Previous affiliations of Pradipta Biswas include Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur & University of Cambridge.


Papers
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
15 Oct 2003
TL;DR: Experimental results on the Brodatz texture database indicate that the retrieval performance can be improved significantly by using the Canberra and Bray-Curtis distance metrics as compare to traditional Euclidean and Mahalanobis distance based approaches.
Abstract: Similarity metrics plays an important role in content-based image retrieval. The paper compares nine image similarity measures - Manhattan (L1), weighted-mean-variance (WMV), Euclidean (L2), Chebychev (L/spl infin/), Mahalanobis, Canberra, Bray-Curtis, squared chord and squared chi-squared distances - for texture image retrieval. A large texture database of 1856 images, derived from the Brodatz album, is used to check the retrieval performance. Features of all the database images were extracted using the Gabor wavelet. Experimental results on the Brodatz texture database indicate that the retrieval performance can be improved significantly by using the Canberra and Bray-Curtis distance metrics as compare to traditional Euclidean and Mahalanobis distance based approaches.

187 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A simulator that can reflect problems faced by elderly and disabled users while they use computer, television, and similar electronic devices is presented and the work on user modeling is presented for people with a wide range of abilities.
Abstract: Elderly and disabled people can be hugely benefited through the advancement of modern electronic devices, as those can help them to engage more fully with the world. However, existing design practices often isolate elderly or disabled users by considering them as users with special needs. This article presents a simulator that can reflect problems faced by elderly and disabled users while they use computer, television, and similar electronic devices. The simulator embodies both the internal state of an application and the perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes of its user. It can help interface designers to understand, visualize, and measure the effect of impairment on interaction with an interface. Initially a brief survey of different user modeling techniques is presented, and then the existing models are classified into different categories. In the context of existing modeling approaches the work on user modeling is presented for people with a wide range of abilities. A few applications of the simu...

69 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new target prediction model is developed that works for different input modalities and combined the eye-gaze tracking–based pointing with a joystick controller that can reduce pointing and selection times and the amplitude of maximum power component obtained through Fourier Transform of pupil signal significantly correlates with selection times.
Abstract: This article presents a series of user studies to develop a new eye-gaze tracking–based pointing system. We developed a new target prediction model that works for different input modalities and combined the eye-gaze tracking–based pointing with a joystick controller that can reduce pointing and selection times. The system finds important applications in cockpit of combat aircraft and for computer novice users. User studies confirmed that users can perform significantly faster using this new eye-gaze tracking–based system for both military and everyday computing tasks compared to existing input devices. As part of the study it was also found that the amplitude of maximum power component obtained through Fourier Transform of pupil signal significantly correlates with selection times and perceived cognitive load of users in terms of Task Load Index scores.

56 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
13 Jan 2008
TL;DR: A simulator to help with the evaluation of assistive interfaces can predict the likely interaction patterns when undertaking a task using a variety of input devices, and estimate the time to complete the task in the presence of different disabilities and for different levels of skill.
Abstract: Computers offer valuable assistance to people with physical disabilities. However designing human-computer interfaces for these users is complicated. The range of abilities is more diverse than for able-bodied users, which makes analytical modelling harder. Practical user trials are also difficult and time consuming. We are developing a simulator to help with the evaluation of assistive interfaces. It can predict the likely interaction patterns when undertaking a task using a variety of input devices, and estimate the time to complete the task in the presence of different disabilities and for different levels of skill. In this paper we describe the different components of the simulator in detail and present a prototype of its implementation.

48 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
24 Oct 2011
TL;DR: This paper describes a novel adaptive accessibility approach on how to develop accessible TV applications, without requiring too much additional effort from the developers, and shows how to adapt User Interfaces to the individual needs and limitations of elderly users.
Abstract: The development of TV applications nowadays excludes users with certain impairments from interacting with and accessing the same type of contents as other users do. Developers are also not interested in developing new or different versions of applications targeting different user characteristics. In this paper we describe a novel adaptive accessibility approach on how to develop accessible TV applications, without requiring too much additional effort from the developers. Integrating multimodal interaction, adaptation techniques and the use of simulators in the design process, we show how to adapt User Interfaces to the individual needs and limitations of elderly users. For this, we rely on the identification of the most relevant impairment configurations among users in practical user-trials, and we draw a relation with user specific characteristics. We provide guidelines for more accessible and centered TV application development.

40 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper focuses on the prospect of improving the lives of countless disabled individuals through a combination of BCI technology with existing assistive technologies (AT) and identifies four application areas where disabled individuals could greatly benefit from advancements inBCI technology, namely, “Communication and Control”, ‘Motor Substitution’, ”Entertainment” and “Motor Recovery”.
Abstract: In recent years, new research has brought the field of electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain–computer interfacing (BCI) out of its infancy and into a phase of relative maturity through many demonstrated prototypes such as brain-controlled wheelchairs, keyboards, and computer games. With this proof-of-concept phase in the past, the time is now ripe to focus on the development of practical BCI technologies that can be brought out of the lab and into real-world applications. In particular, we focus on the prospect of improving the lives of countless disabled individuals through a combination of BCI technology with existing assistive technologies (AT). In pursuit of more practical BCIs for use outside of the lab, in this paper, we identify four application areas where disabled individuals could greatly benefit from advancements in BCI technology, namely, “Communication and Control”, “Motor Substitution”, “Entertainment”, and “Motor Recovery”. We review the current state of the art and possible future developments, while discussing the main research issues in these four areas. In particular, we expect the most progress in the development of technologies such as hybrid BCI architectures, user–machine adaptation algorithms, the exploitation of users’ mental states for BCI reliability and confidence measures, the incorporation of principles in human–computer interaction (HCI) to improve BCI usability, and the development of novel BCI technology including better EEG devices.

792 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Eight well-known similarity/distance metrics are compared on a large dataset of molecular fingerprints with sum of ranking differences (SRD) and ANOVA analysis and the Tanimoto index, Dice index, Cosine coefficient and Soergel distance were identified to be the best metrics for similarity calculations.
Abstract: Cheminformaticians are equipped with a very rich toolbox when carrying out molecular similarity calculations. A large number of molecular representations exist, and there are several methods (similarity and distance metrics) to quantify the similarity of molecular representations. In this work, eight well-known similarity/distance metrics are compared on a large dataset of molecular fingerprints with sum of ranking differences (SRD) and ANOVA analysis. The effects of molecular size, selection methods and data pretreatment methods on the outcome of the comparison are also assessed. A supplier database ( https://mcule.com/ ) was used as the source of compounds for the similarity calculations in this study. A large number of datasets, each consisting of one hundred compounds, were compiled, molecular fingerprints were generated and similarity values between a randomly chosen reference compound and the rest were calculated for each dataset. Similarity metrics were compared based on their ranking of the compounds within one experiment (one dataset) using sum of ranking differences (SRD), while the results of the entire set of experiments were summarized on box and whisker plots. Finally, the effects of various factors (data pretreatment, molecule size, selection method) were evaluated with analysis of variance (ANOVA). This study complements previous efforts to examine and rank various metrics for molecular similarity calculations. Here, however, an entirely general approach was taken to neglect any a priori knowledge on the compounds involved, as well as any bias introduced by examining only one or a few specific scenarios. The Tanimoto index, Dice index, Cosine coefficient and Soergel distance were identified to be the best (and in some sense equivalent) metrics for similarity calculations, i.e. these metrics could produce the rankings closest to the composite (average) ranking of the eight metrics. The similarity metrics derived from Euclidean and Manhattan distances are not recommended on their own, although their variability and diversity from other similarity metrics might be advantageous in certain cases (e.g. for data fusion). Conclusions are also drawn regarding the effects of molecule size, selection method and data pretreatment on the ranking behavior of the studied metrics.

770 citations

Proceedings Article
22 Aug 1999
TL;DR: The accessibility, usability, and, ultimately, acceptability of Information Society Technologies by anyone, anywhere, at anytime, and through any media and device is addressed.
Abstract: ▶ Addresses the accessibility, usability, and, ultimately, acceptability of Information Society Technologies by anyone, anywhere, at anytime, and through any media and device. ▶ Focuses on theoretical, methodological, and empirical research, of both technological and non-technological nature. ▶ Features papers that report on theories, methods, tools, empirical results, reviews, case studies, and best-practice examples.

752 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work presents ability-based design, a refinement to accessible computing that consists of focusing on ability throughout the design process in an effort to create systems that leverage the full range of human potential.
Abstract: Current approaches to accessible computing share a common goal of making technology accessible to users with disabilities. Perhaps because of this goal, they may also share a tendency to centralize disability rather than ability. We present a refinement to these approaches called ability-based design that consists of focusing on ability throughout the design process in an effort to create systems that leverage the full range of human potential. Just as user-centered design shifted the focus of interactive system design from systems to users, ability-based design attempts to shift the focus of accessible design from disability to ability. Although prior approaches to accessible computing may consider users’ abilities to some extent, ability-based design makes ability its central focus. We offer seven ability-based design principles and describe the projects that inspired their formulation. We also present a research agenda for ability-based design.

403 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
10 Oct 2004
TL;DR: MRBIR first makes use of a manifold ranking algorithm to explore the relationship among all the data points in the feature space, and then measures relevance between the query and all the images in the database accordingly, which is different from traditional similarity metrics based on pair-wise distance.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel transductive learning framework named manifold-ranking based image retrieval (MRBIR) Given a query image, MRBIR first makes use of a manifold ranking algorithm to explore the relationship among all the data points in the feature space, and then measures relevance between the query and all the images in the database accordingly, which is different from traditional similarity metrics based on pair-wise distance In relevance feedback, if only positive examples are available, they are added to the query set to improve the retrieval result; if examples of both labels can be obtained, MRBIR discriminately spreads the ranking scores of positive and negative examples, considering the asymmetry between these two types of images Furthermore, three active learning methods are incorporated into MRBIR, which select images in each round of relevance feedback according to different principles, aiming to maximally improve the ranking result Experimental results on a general-purpose image database show that MRBIR attains a significant improvement over existing systems from all aspects

382 citations