Other affiliations: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories, University of California, Berkeley ...read more
Bio: Prakash Ishwar is an academic researcher from Boston University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Topic model & Distributed source coding. The author has an hindex of 35, co-authored 190 publications receiving 5419 citations. Previous affiliations of Prakash Ishwar include Massachusetts Institute of Technology & Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories.
Papers published on a yearly basis
••16 Jun 2012
TL;DR: A unique change detection benchmark dataset consisting of nearly 90,000 frames in 31 video sequences representing 6 categories selected to cover a wide range of challenges in 2 modalities (color and thermal IR).
Abstract: Change detection is one of the most commonly encountered low-level tasks in computer vision and video processing. A plethora of algorithms have been developed to date, yet no widely accepted, realistic, large-scale video dataset exists for benchmarking different methods. Presented here is a unique change detection benchmark dataset consisting of nearly 90,000 frames in 31 video sequences representing 6 categories selected to cover a wide range of challenges in 2 modalities (color and thermal IR). A distinguishing characteristic of this dataset is that each frame is meticulously annotated for ground-truth foreground, background, and shadow area boundaries — an effort that goes much beyond a simple binary label denoting the presence of change. This enables objective and precise quantitative comparison and ranking of change detection algorithms. This paper presents and discusses various aspects of the new dataset, quantitative performance metrics used, and comparative results for over a dozen previous and new change detection algorithms. The dataset, evaluation tools, and algorithm rankings are available to the public on a website1 and will be updated with feedback from academia and industry in the future.
••23 Jun 2014
TL;DR: The latest release of the changedetection.net dataset is presented, which includes 22 additional videos spanning 5 new categories that incorporate challenges encountered in many surveillance settings and highlights strengths and weaknesses of these methods and identifies remaining issues in change detection.
Abstract: Change detection is one of the most important lowlevel tasks in video analytics. In 2012, we introduced the changedetection.net (CDnet) benchmark, a video dataset devoted to the evalaution of change and motion detection approaches. Here, we present the latest release of the CDnet dataset, which includes 22 additional videos (70; 000 pixel-wise annotated frames) spanning 5 new categories that incorporate challenges encountered in many surveillance settings. We describe these categories in detail and provide an overview of the results of more than a dozen methods submitted to the IEEE Change DetectionWorkshop 2014. We highlight strengths and weaknesses of these methods and identify remaining issues in change detection.
TL;DR: Although counter-intuitive, it is shown surprisingly that, through the use of coding with side information principles, this reversal of order is indeed possible in some settings of interest without loss of either optimal coding efficiency or perfect secrecy.
Abstract: When it is desired to transmit redundant data over an insecure and bandwidth-constrained channel, it is customary to first compress the data and then encrypt it. In this paper, we investigate the novelty of reversing the order of these steps, i.e., first encrypting and then compressing, without compromising either the compression efficiency or the information-theoretic security. Although counter-intuitive, we show surprisingly that, through the use of coding with side information principles, this reversal of order is indeed possible in some settings of interest without loss of either optimal coding efficiency or perfect secrecy. We show that in certain scenarios our scheme requires no more randomness in the encryption key than the conventional system where compression precedes encryption. In addition to proving the theoretical feasibility of this reversal of operations, we also describe a system which implements compression of encrypted data.
••29 Aug 2010
TL;DR: This approach based on the unique blend of a logcovariance-descriptor and a sparse linear representation is tested on the Weizmann and KTH datasets and attains leave-one-out cross validation scores of 94.4% and 98.5% respectively.
Abstract: A novel approach to action recognition in video based onthe analysis of optical flow is presented. Properties of opticalflow useful for action recognition are captured usingonly the empirical covariance matrix of a bag of featuressuch as flow velocity, gradient, and divergence. The featurecovariance matrix is a low-dimensional representationof video dynamics that belongs to a Riemannian manifold.The Riemannian manifold of covariance matrices is transformedinto the vector space of symmetric matrices underthe matrix logarithm mapping. The log-covariance matrixof a test action segment is approximated by a sparse linearcombination of the log-covariance matrices of training actionsegments using a linear program and the coefficients ofthe sparse linear representation are used to recognize actions.This approach based on the unique blend of a logcovariance-descriptor and a sparse linear representation istested on the Weizmann and KTH datasets. The proposedapproach attains leave-one-out cross validation scores of94.4% correct classification rate for the Weizmann datasetand 98.5% for the KTH dataset. Furthermore, the methodis computationally efficient and easy to implement.
TL;DR: This article presents an empirical study that investigated and compared two “big data” text analysis methods: dictionary-based analysis, perhaps the most popular automated analysis approach in social science research, and unsupervised topic modeling (i.e., Latent Dirichlet Allocation [LDA] analysis), one of the most widely used algorithms in the field of computer science and engineering.
Abstract: This article presents an empirical study that investigated and compared two “big data” text analysis methods: dictionary-based analysis, perhaps the most popular automated analysis approach in soci...
01 Feb 1977
•16 Jan 2012
TL;DR: In this article, a comprehensive treatment of network information theory and its applications is provided, which provides the first unified coverage of both classical and recent results, including successive cancellation and superposition coding, MIMO wireless communication, network coding and cooperative relaying.
Abstract: This comprehensive treatment of network information theory and its applications provides the first unified coverage of both classical and recent results. With an approach that balances the introduction of new models and new coding techniques, readers are guided through Shannon's point-to-point information theory, single-hop networks, multihop networks, and extensions to distributed computing, secrecy, wireless communication, and networking. Elementary mathematical tools and techniques are used throughout, requiring only basic knowledge of probability, whilst unified proofs of coding theorems are based on a few simple lemmas, making the text accessible to newcomers. Key topics covered include successive cancellation and superposition coding, MIMO wireless communication, network coding, and cooperative relaying. Also covered are feedback and interactive communication, capacity approximations and scaling laws, and asynchronous and random access channels. This book is ideal for use in the classroom, for self-study, and as a reference for researchers and engineers in industry and academia.
15 Feb 2011
••16 Jun 2012
TL;DR: A conceptually clear and intuitive algorithm for contrast-based saliency estimation that outperforms all state-of-the-art approaches and can be formulated in a unified way using high-dimensional Gaussian filters.
Abstract: Saliency estimation has become a valuable tool in image processing. Yet, existing approaches exhibit considerable variation in methodology, and it is often difficult to attribute improvements in result quality to specific algorithm properties. In this paper we reconsider some of the design choices of previous methods and propose a conceptually clear and intuitive algorithm for contrast-based saliency estimation. Our algorithm consists of four basic steps. First, our method decomposes a given image into compact, perceptually homogeneous elements that abstract unnecessary detail. Based on this abstraction we compute two measures of contrast that rate the uniqueness and the spatial distribution of these elements. From the element contrast we then derive a saliency measure that produces a pixel-accurate saliency map which uniformly covers the objects of interest and consistently separates fore- and background. We show that the complete contrast and saliency estimation can be formulated in a unified way using high-dimensional Gaussian filters. This contributes to the conceptual simplicity of our method and lends itself to a highly efficient implementation with linear complexity. In a detailed experimental evaluation we analyze the contribution of each individual feature and show that our method outperforms all state-of-the-art approaches.