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Author

Punarbasu Chaudhuri

Other affiliations: University of Sydney
Bio: Punarbasu Chaudhuri is an academic researcher from University of Calcutta. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Mangrove & Avicennia marina. The author has an hindex of 19, co-authored 64 publication(s) receiving 891 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Punarbasu Chaudhuri include University of Sydney.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Investigation of mangrove sediments and associated fine nutritive roots collected from five major embayments of Sydney estuary (Australia) for geochemical studies finds a strong linear correlation between metal concentrations in fine nutritives roots vs. total and bio-available contents in sediments.
Abstract: Mangrove sediment has long been recognized as being important in restricting the mobility of contaminants in estuarine environments. To investigate the role of rhizosphere processes in the accumulation of trace metals in mangrove fine nutritive roots, the mangrove sediments and associated fine nutritive roots are collected from five major embayments of Sydney estuary (Australia) for geochemical studies. In this estuary Avicennia marina sediments are accumulating large quantities of trace metals due to presence of abundant fine sediment (<62.5 μm) and organic matter as well as anthropogenic input. Accumulation of trace metals in fine nutritive roots responds to total sediment chemistry mainly due to rhizosphere sediment geochemical processes resulting in a strong linear correlation between metal concentrations in fine nutritive roots vs. total and bio-available contents in sediments. Accumulation of trace metals in fine nutritive roots is almost always exceeds rhizosphere total sediment metal concentrations.

65 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The degree of metal bio-accumulation in leaves and pneumatophores suggest contrasting hydrological behaviors and near-surface geochemical conditions favoring differential metal uptake by mangrove plants in the two sites.
Abstract: The generation of acidity and subsequent mobilization of toxic metals induced by acid sulfate soils (ASSs) are known to cause severe environmental damage to many coastal wetlands and estuaries of Australia and worldwide. Mangrove ecosystems serve to protect coastal environments, but are increasingly threatened from such ASS-induced acidification due to variable hydrological conditions (i.e., inundation–desiccation cycles). However, the impact of such behaviors on trace metal distribution, bio-availability and accumulation in mangrove tissues, i.e., leaves and pneumatophores, are largely unknown. In this study, we examined how ASS-induced acidifications controlled trace metal distribution and bio-availability in gray mangrove (Avicennia marina) soils and in tissues in the Kooragang wetland, New South Wales, Australia. We collected mangrove soils, leaves and pneumatophores from a part of the wetland acidified from ASS (i.e., an affected site) for detailed biogeochemical studies. The results were compared with samples collected from a natural intertidal mangrove forest (i.e., a control site) located within the same wetland. Soil pH (mean: 5.90) indicated acidic conditions in the affected site, whereas pH was near-neutral (mean: 7.17) in the control site. The results did not show statistically significant differences in near-total and bio-available metal concentrations, except for Fe and Mn, between affected and control sites. Iron concentrations were significantly (p values ≤ 0.001) greater in the affected site, whereas Mn concentrations were significantly (p values ≤ 0.001) greater in the control site. However, large proportions of near-total metals were potentially bio-available in control sites. Concentrations of Fe and Ni were significantly (p values ≤ 0.001) greater in leaves and pneumatophores of the affected sites, whereas Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn were greater in control sites. The degree of metal bio-accumulation in leaves and pneumatophores suggest contrasting hydrological behaviors and near-surface geochemical conditions favoring differential metal uptake by mangrove plants in the two sites.

53 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study supports the notion that A. marina mangroves act as a phytostabilizer in this highly modified estuary thereby protecting the aquatic ecosystem from point or non-point sources of heavy metal contamination.
Abstract: Mangrove forests act as a natural filter of land-derived wastewaters along industrialized tropical and sub-tropical coastlines and assist in maintaining a healthy living condition for marine ecosystems. Currently, these intertidal communities are under serious threat from heavy metal contamination induced by human activity associated with rapid urbanization and industrialization. Studies on the biotic responses of these plants to heavy metal contamination are of great significance in estuary management and maintaining coastal ecosystem health. The main objective of the present investigation was to assess the biotic response in Avicennia marina ecosystems to heavy metal contamination through the determination of metal concentrations in leaves, fine nutritive roots and underlying sediments collected in fifteen locations across Sydney Estuary (Australia). Metal concentrations (especially Cu, Pb and Zn) in the underlying sediments of A. marina were enriched to a level (based on Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines) at which adverse biological effects to flora could occasionally occur. Metals accumulated in fine nutritive roots greater than underlying sediments, however, only minor translocation of these metals to A. marina leaves was observed (mean translocation factors, TFs, for all elements <0.13, except for Mn). Translocation factors of essential elements (i.e., common plant micro-nutrients, Cu, Ni, Mn and Zn) were greater than non-essential elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr and Pb), suggesting that A. marina mangroves of this estuary selectively excluded non-essential elements, while regulating essential elements and limiting toxicity to plants. This study supports the notion that A. marina mangroves act as a phytostabilizer in this highly modified estuary thereby protecting the aquatic ecosystem from point or non-point sources of heavy metal contamination.

51 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Mangroves are one of the most threatened ecosystems worldwide located within the intertidal zones of tropics and subtropics. They provide both ecologic and economic benefits to coastal communities. They safeguard community lives and properties in coastal areas during storm surges, hurricanes, cyclones and tsunamis. Global estimate shows decline in mangrove vegetal covers to ~150,000 sq. km. Degradation of mangrove ecosystems in India are mainly due to continuous increase in anthropogenic activities such as conversion of mangrove wetlands for aquaculture and destruction of mangrove forest for timber. In the coastal areas inhabitants are at risks of losing their livelihood and ecological communities are in the verge of extinction. The effective conservation and management of mangrove habitats should be considered in association with local community participation and application of remote sensing technique and Geographic Information System (GIS)-based comprehensive database approach. We reviewed threats and vulnerabilities to mangrove habitats around the world with a special emphasis in east coast of India. We also reviewed current mangrove management practices. We discussed the importance of acquisition/assessment of remote sensing data for GIS-based effective mangrove management approach in remote Indian coasts. A combination of remote sensing and GIS-based approach will have significant ecologic and economic benefits by gaining real-time data from inaccessible areas. This strategy has valuable implications to other remote/threatened mangrove wetlands worldwide.

46 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
S. S. Ram1, S. S. Ram2, S. Majumder3, Punarbasu Chaudhuri2  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Urban and peri-urban vegetation is being considered for air pollution abatement. Appropriate plants with efficiency to adsorb and absorb air-pollutants are the prerequisite for green space development. The contributions of surface morphology towards plant’s ability to function as dust particulate adsorber and distribution of trace elements over the leaves are investigated in the present study. Dust interception efficiency was estimated for two roadside plant species named Ficus benghalensis, and Polyalthia longifolia. Leaves of both the plants are capable of capturing dust in the range of 0.12 mg/cm2 to 1.89 mg/cm2 on either of the leaf surfaces. However, variation in dust capturing capacity between the plants was observed. Leaf surface characters such as roughness, length, frequency of trichomes and frequency of stomata played a significant role in capturing re-suspended dust. Frequency (2 to 4 per 0.0004 cm2) and length (152.5 to 92.1 cm) of trichome showed negative co-relation trend, where as frequency and size of stomata showed positive co-relation trend. Elemental analysis by Scanning Electron Microscope attached with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer (SEMEDS) indicated the presence of elements such as Sodium (Na), Magnesium (Mg), Aluminium (Al), Silicon (Si), Chlorine (Cl), Pottasium (K), Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn) and Arsenic (As). The results support the fact that plant canopies can be used for mitigation and bio-monitoring of air pollution as well.

45 citations


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Journal Article
TL;DR: This work found significant variation in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes in accumulation and tolerance of Pb, and screened ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized M2 populations and identified several Pb-accumulating mutants.
Abstract: In addition to the often-cited advantages of using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system in plant biological research (1), Arabidopsis has many additional characteristics that make it an attractive experimental organism for studying lea d (Pb) accumulation and tolerance in plants. These include its fortuitous familial relationship to many known metal hyperaccumulators (Brassicaceae), as well as similar Pbaccumulation patterns to most other plants. Using nutrient-agar plates, hydroponic culture, and Pb-contaminated soils as growth media, we found significant variation in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes in accumulation and tolerance of Pb. In addition, we have found that Pb accumulation is not obligatorily linked with Pb tolerance, suggesti ng that different genetic factors control these two processes. We also screened ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized M2 populations and identified several Pb-accumulating mutants. Current characterization of these mutants indicates that their phenotypes are likely due to alteration of general metal ion uptake or translocation processes since these mutants also accumulate many other metals in shoots. We expect that further characterization of the ecotypes and mutants will shed light on the basic genetic and physiological underpinnings of plant-based Pb remediation. 7. Aromatic nitroreduction of acifluorfen in soils, rhizospheres, and pure cultures of rhizobacteria. Zablotowicz, R. M., Locke, M. A., and Hoagland, R. E. Phytoremediation of soil and water contaminants. Washington, DC : American Chemical Society, 1997. p. 38-53. NAL Call #: QD1.A45-no.664 Abstract: Reduction of nitroaromatic compounds to their corresponding amino derivatives is one of several pathways in the degradation of nitroxenobiotics. Our studies with the nitrodiphenyl ether herbicide acifluorfen showed rapid metabolism to am inoacifluorfen followed by incorporation into unextractable soil components in both soil and rhizosphere suspensions. Aminoacifluorfen was formed more rapidly in rhizospheres compared to soil, which can be attributed to higher microbial populations, espec ially of Gram-negative bacteria. We identified several strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens that possess nitroreductase activity capable of converting acifluorfen to aminoacifluorfen. Factors affecting acifluorfen nitroreductase activity in pure cultures an d cell-free extracts, and other catabolic transformations of acifluorfen, ether bond cleavage, are discussed. Plant rhizospheres should be conducive for aromatic nitroreduction. Nitroreduction by rhizobacteria is an important catabolic pathway for the ini tial degradation of various nitroherbicides and other nitroaromatic compounds in soils under Reduction of nitroaromatic compounds to their corresponding amino derivatives is one of several pathways in the degradation of nitroxenobiotics. Our studies with the nitrodiphenyl ether herbicide acifluorfen showed rapid metabolism to am inoacifluorfen followed by incorporation into unextractable soil components in both soil and rhizosphere suspensions. Aminoacifluorfen was formed more rapidly in rhizospheres compared to soil, which can be attributed to higher microbial populations, espec ially of Gram-negative bacteria. We identified several strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens that possess nitroreductase activity capable of converting acifluorfen to aminoacifluorfen. Factors affecting acifluorfen nitroreductase activity in pure cultures an d cell-free extracts, and other catabolic transformations of acifluorfen, ether bond cleavage, are discussed. Plant rhizospheres should be conducive for aromatic nitroreduction. Nitroreduction by rhizobacteria is an important catabolic pathway for the ini tial degradation of various nitroherbicides and other nitroaromatic compounds in soils under phytoremediation management. 8. Ascorbate: a biomarker of herbicide stress in wetland plants. Lytle, T. F. and Lytle, J. S. Phytoremediation of soil and water contaminants. Washington, DC : American Chemical Society, 1997. p. 106-113. NAL Call #: QD1.A45-no.664 Abstract: In laboratory exposures of wetland plants to low herbicide levels (<0.1 micrograms/mL), some plants showed increased total ascorbic acid suggesting a stimulatory effect on ascorbic acid synthesis occurred; at higher herbicide conce ntrations (greater than or equal to 0.1 micrograms/mL) a notable decline in total ascorbic acid and increase in the oxidized form, dehydroascorbic acid occurred. Vigna luteola and Sesbania vesicaria were exposed for 7 and 21 days respectively to atrazine (0.05 to 1 microgram/mL); Spartina alterniflora 28 days at 0.1 micrograms/mL trifluralin; Hibiscus moscheutos 14 days at 0.1 and 1 microgram/mL metolachlor in fresh and brackish water. The greatest increase following low dosage occurred with S. alterniflo ra, increasing from <600 micrograms/g wet wt. total ascorbic acid to >1000 micrograms/g. Ascorbic acid may be a promising biomarker of estuarine plants exposed to herbicide runoff; stimulation of ascorbic acid synthesis may enable some wetland plant s used in phytoremediation to cope with low levels of these compounds. In laboratory exposures of wetland plants to low herbicide levels (<0.1 micrograms/mL), some plants showed increased total ascorbic acid suggesting a stimulatory effect on ascorbic acid synthesis occurred; at higher herbicide conce ntrations (greater than or equal to 0.1 micrograms/mL) a notable decline in total ascorbic acid and increase in the oxidized form, dehydroascorbic acid occurred. Vigna luteola and Sesbania vesicaria were exposed for 7 and 21 days respectively to atrazine (0.05 to 1 microgram/mL); Spartina alterniflora 28 days at 0.1 micrograms/mL trifluralin; Hibiscus moscheutos 14 days at 0.1 and 1 microgram/mL metolachlor in fresh and brackish water. The greatest increase following low dosage occurred with S. alterniflo ra, increasing from <600 micrograms/g wet wt. total ascorbic acid to >1000 micrograms/g. Ascorbic acid may be a promising biomarker of estuarine plants exposed to herbicide runoff; stimulation of ascorbic acid synthesis may enable some wetland plant s used in phytoremediation to cope with low levels of these compounds. 9. Atmospheric nitrogenous compounds and ozone--is NO(x) fixation by plants a possible solution. Wellburn, A. R. New phytol. 139: 1 pp. 5-9. (May 1998). NAL Call #: 450-N42 Descriptors: ozoneair-pollution nitrogen-dioxide nitric-oxide air-quality tolerancebioremediationacclimatizationnutrient-sources nutrient-uptake plantscultivarsgenetic-variation literature-reviews 10. Atrazine degradation in pesticide-contaminated soils: phytoremediation potential. Kruger, E. L., Anhalt, J. C., Sorenson, D., Nelson, B., Chouhy, A. L., Anderson, T. A., and Coats, J. R. Phytoremediation of soil and water contaminants. Washington, DC : American Chemical Society, 1997. p. 54-64. NAL Call #: QD1.A45-no. 664 Abstract: Studies were conducted in the laboratory to determine the fate of atrazine in pesticide-contaminated soils from agrochemical dealer sites. No significant differences in atrazine concentrations occurred in soils treated with atrazine i ndividually or combinations with metolachlor and trifluralin. In a screening study carried out in soils from four agrochemical dealer sites, rapid mineralization of atrazine occurred in three out of eight soils tested, with the greatest amount occurring i n Bravo rhizosphere soil (35% of the applied atrazine after 9 weeks). Suppression of atrazine mineralization in the Bravo rhizosphere soil did not occur with the addition of high concentrations of herbicide mixtures, but instead was increased. Plants had a positive impact on dissipation of aged Studies were conducted in the laboratory to determine the fate of atrazine in pesticide-contaminated soils from agrochemical dealer sites. No significant differences in atrazine concentrations occurred in soils treated with atrazine i ndividually or combinations with metolachlor and trifluralin. In a screening study carried out in soils from four agrochemical dealer sites, rapid mineralization of atrazine occurred in three out of eight soils tested, with the greatest amount occurring i n Bravo rhizosphere soil (35% of the applied atrazine after 9 weeks). Suppression of atrazine mineralization in the Bravo rhizosphere soil did not occur with the addition of high concentrations of herbicide mixtures, but instead was increased. Plants had a positive impact on dissipation of aged atrazine in soil, with significantly less atrazine extractable from Kochia-vegetated soils than from nonvegetated soils. 11. Bacterial inoculants of forage grasses that enhance degradation of 2-chlorobenzoic acid in soil. Siciliano, S. D. and Germida, J. J. Environ toxicol chem. 16: 6 pp. 1098-1104. (June 1997). NAL Call #: QH545.A1E58 Descriptors: polluted-soils bioremediationAbstract: Biological remediation of contaminated soil is an effective method of reducing risk to human and ecosystem health. Bacteria and plants might be used to enhance remediation of soil pollutants in situ. This study assessed the potential of bacteria (12 isolates), plants (16 forage grasses), and plant-bacteria associations (selected pairings) to remediate 2-chlorobenzoic acid (2CBA)-contaminated soil. Initially, grass viability was assessed in 2CBA-contaminated soil. Soil was contaminated wi th 2CBA, forage grasses were grown under growth chamber conditions for 42 or 60 d, and the 2CBA concentration in soil was determined by gas chromatography. Only five of 16 forage grasses grew in 2CBA-treated (816 mg/kg) soil. Growth of Bromus inermis had no effect on 2CBA concentration, whereas Agropyron intermedium, B. biebersteinii, A. riparum, and Elymus dauricus decreased 2CBA relative to nonplanted control soil by 32 to 42%. The 12 bacteria isolates were screened for their ability to promote the germ ination of the five grasses in 2CBA-contaminated soil. Inoculation of A. riparum with Pseudomonas aeruginos

865 citations


Journal Article
Abstract: The results of the Forest Resources Assessment 2000 carried out by FAO are synthetically presented and discussed. The world forest coverage is estimated equal to 38.6 million km 2 . The comparison of the estimates from the period 1990-2000 with those from the period 1980-1990 points out a certain general deceleration of the rate of net deforestation, that currently involves around 9 million hectares every year. However, the annua1 loss of tropical forests is still very large, while temperate and borea1 forests are in expansion. Overall, FRA2000 produced a relevant effort to compensate the existing technical, institutional and financial constraints and shortcomings for monitoring the world forest resources. The need to increase the quality and the frequency of forest surveys, both at national and international levels, s t a stands as a major issue to cope with.

600 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 1945-Agronomy Journal

416 citations


01 Jan 2016-
TL;DR: The the botany of mangroves is universally compatible with any devices to read and is available in the digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can get it instantly.
Abstract: Thank you very much for reading the botany of mangroves. As you may know, people have look hundreds times for their favorite books like this the botany of mangroves, but end up in harmful downloads. Rather than enjoying a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon, instead they cope with some infectious virus inside their computer. the botany of mangroves is available in our digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can get it instantly. Our book servers saves in multiple locations, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Kindly say, the the botany of mangroves is universally compatible with any devices to read.

329 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1994-Plant Biosystems
Abstract: Many papers have reported the uptake and translocation of toxic metals and radionuclides to fruit bodies of edible fungi and also to mycelia biomass. Our aim is to study how to reduce the metal phytotoxicity by mychorrizal fungi pointing at land reclamation and at the detoxification of metal/radionuclides-containing industrial effluents.

204 citations


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Author's H-index: 19

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
20221
202110
20209
201911
20184
20176