Bio: Purushottam Patel is an academic researcher from Indian Council of Medical Research. The author has contributed to research in topics: Prevalence & Cultivar. The author has an hindex of 3, co-authored 6 publications receiving 31 citations.
TL;DR: In view of the high prevalence of viral STIs in the tribal community of Central India, there is a need to strengthen the STI control program in this under-privileged group.
Abstract: Summary Objective To determine the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in the tribal population of central India. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the tribal population of Jabalpur district. Blood samples were drawn from 326 patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and 526 randomly selected adults. These were tested for HIV, HBV, HCV, and HSV-2 using commercial ELISA kits. Results The prevalence of IgG antibodies to HSV-2 was 20.8% in STI patients compared to 12.4% in the general population. The HBV carriage rate was 3.4% in STI patients against 2.9% in the general population. HCV prevalence was 3.9% in STI patients and 4.6% in the general population. No HIV infection was found in the study population. Conclusions In view of the high prevalence of viral STIs in the tribal community of Central India, there is a need to strengthen the STI control program in this under-privileged group.
TL;DR: It may conclude from the present study that grafting tomato onto eggplant rootstocks, particularly on IC-354557 and IC-111056 may improve water logging tolerance for 7296 hr in tomato hybrids.
Abstract: This study was conducted at ICAR-IIVR, Varanasi during 2013–14 Four eggplant rootstocks viz, IC-354557, IC111056, IC-374873 and CHBR-2 were used, while hybrid tomato(Arka Rakshak and Arka Samrat) were used asscion cultivars Both grafted and non-grafted plants were exposed to waterlogging stress for 72 and 96 hr, respectively during vegetative and reproductive stages Experimental finding revealed that there was no leaf chlorosis and wilting in the plant, and was less reduction in chlorophyll content (CCI), chlorophyll fluorescence yield (Fv/Fm) in all plant growth stages, when tomato hybrids were grafted over eggplant rootstocks In contrast, the non-grafted plants have registered 396–41% reduction in Fv/Fm and 41–100% reduction in CCI at 96 hr after exposing the waterlogging stress Non-grafted plants wilted and die 4–7 days after relieving from stress; whereas the grafted plants completely recovered from stress shock in 7–10 days after relieving from stress It may conclude from the present study that grafting tomato onto eggplant rootstocks, particularly on IC-354557 and IC-111056 may improve water logging tolerance for 7296 hr in tomato hybrids
TL;DR: There are large differences in the distribution of G6PD causal variants between Indian states, and this may have implications for the treatment in the malaria endemic areas.
Abstract: Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common human erythroenzymopathy affecting around 10% of the world population. India is endemic for malaria and antimalarial drugs are known to induce haemolysis in G6PD deficient individuals. Here we report the prevalence as well as the molecular diversity of G6PD deficiency in geographical regions of India. Methods and results A total of 20,896 individuals (11,838 males and 9058 females) were screened by DPIP dye decolorisation method followed by quantitation of G6PD enzyme activity on the suspected samples. Molecular analysis was undertaken in a total of 350 G6PD deficient individuals by PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing. A structural characteristic of the novel variant was deduced by using DynaMut web-server. The prevalence rate of G6PD deficiency varied between 0.8 and 6.3% with an overall prevalence of 1.9%. A total of twelve mutations were identified. Of the total deleterious alleles detected G6PD Orissa (56.5%) was found to be the most predominant variant followed by G6PD Mediterranean (23.6%). G6PD Mediterranean, G6PD Kaiping and G6PD Mahidol were found to be severely deficient variant and 14.1% of them showed undetectable activity. A novel mutation c.544C➔G (R182G) in exon 6 was identified in one tribal male where substitution of arginine by glycine, likely causes the alteration in the alpha helix leading to disruption of secondary structure of the protein. Conclusion There are large differences in the distribution of G6PD causal variants between Indian states, and this may have implications for the treatment in the malaria endemic areas.
TL;DR: In this paper, a polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to detect and distinguish Mycobacterium leprae and Mycococcus lepromatosis using a single set of primers.
Abstract: We have developed a polymerase chain reaction-based method to detect and distinguish Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis using a single set of primers based on a 45-bp difference in the amplicon size of their rpoT gene. This method can also help in detecting the cases of co-infection in a single experiment.
TL;DR: The presence of Hb Lepore (d22/b50) is reported for the first time in a family belonging to the Baiga tribe from Dindori District, Madhya Pradesh, India for confirmation and diagnosis of a 1.6 year old male child with complaints of fever and anemia.
Abstract: Hemoglobin Lepore (Hb Lepore) is an uncommon hemoglobinopathy with db hybrid chains produced by 7.4 kb deletion in the b-globin gene cluster. The fusion gene results in poor of synthesis of db hybrid chains resulting in heterozygous b-thalassemia phenotype with mild hypochromic microcytic anemia. Homozygosity for Hb Lepore or compound heterozygosity for b-thalassemia and Hb Lepore results in the phenotype of thalassemia major or thalassemia intermedia [1–3]. Five variants of Hb Lepore have been identified, each characterized by different gene deletion breakpoints. Hb Lepore-Boston-Washington (Hb LBW), (HGVS: NG_000007.3: g.63632_71046del) is the most commonly reported variant, worldwide and in many ethnic groups from Mediterranean countries. Hb Lepore-Baltimore, (HGVS: NG_000007.3: g.63564_70978,) is reported from Southern Europe and Latin America [4–6]. Hb Lepore Hollandia (HGVS: NG_000007.3: g.63290_70702del) is mainly found among individuals of Southern and Southeast Asian origin [7, 8]. Here we report the presence of Hb Lepore (d22/b50) for the first time in a family belonging to the Baiga tribe from Dindori District, Madhya Pradesh, India. A 1.6 year old male child with complaints of fever and anemia was referred to us for confirmation and diagnosis. Table 1 summarizes the results of hematological and molecular analysis of the propositus and his parents. On cellulose acetate electrophoresis at alkaline pH 8.9, the propositus and his mother showed a slow moving band not corresponding to the controls of HbS/HbD position but marginally trailing the HbS band. Cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis on the VARIANT II hemoglobin testing system using the bThalassemia Short Program (Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA) showed HbA2 of 3.2% with a RT of 3.42 min along with HbF and HbA0 of 7.6 and 82.3% respectively suggesting the presence of Hb Lepore (Fig. 1). On family screening his father was found to be normal whereas his mother was found to be slightly anemic. Her HPLC chromatogram showed a split HbA2 peak of 11.1% with a retention time of 3.43 min. Her HbF and HbA0 level was 0.9 and 79.9% respectively (Table 1). Earlier studies suggest that the retention time of Hb Lepore ? HbA2 is 3.42–3.43 min. Molecular analysis by PCR showed the presence of the Hb Harsha Lad and Manju Yadav have contributed equally to this work.
TL;DR: Overall seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection among pregnant women of Northeast India is relatively low and the generation of awareness among high risk groups may have played key role to limit the infection.
Abstract: Background Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections that facilitate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition by over two fold or more. The development of HSV-2 control methods as a measure to control HIV epidemic in high HSV-2/HIV areas has become a priority. Two out of the six high HIV prevalent states of India are located in the Northeastern region of India. Due to lack of documented HSV-2 studies from this part of the country; there was a need for estimating the seroprevalence and risk factors of HSV-2 infection in this defined population.
TL;DR: The results confirm that sexual risk factors for HIV infection continue to be an important part of Indian HIV epidemic 26 years after it began and should remain targets of HIV prevention programs.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Approximately 2.4 million people are living with HIV in India. This large disease burden and potential for epidemic spread in some areas demands a full understanding of transmission in that country. We wished to quantify the effects of key sexual risk factors for HIV infection for each gender and among high- and low-HIV risk populations in India. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a systematic review of sexual risk factors for HIV infection from 35 published studies. Risk factors analyzed were: male circumcision/religion Herpes Simplex Virus 2 syphilis gonorrhoea genital ulcer multiple sexual partners and commercial sex. Studies were included if they met predetermined criteria. Data were extracted and checked by two researchers and random-effects meta analysis of effects was conducted. Heterogeneity in effect estimates was examined by I(2) statistic. Publication bias was tested by Beggs test and funnel plots. Meta regression was used to assess effect modification by various study attributes. RESULTS: All risk factors were significantly associated with HIV status. The factor most strongly associated with HIV for both sexes was HSV-2 infection (OR(men): 5.87; 95%CI: 2.46-14.03; OR(women): 6.44; 95%CI: 3.22-12.86). The effect of multiple sexual partners was similar among men (OR = 2.46; 95%CI: 1.91-3.17) and women (OR = 2.02; 95%CI: 1.43-2.87) and when further stratified by HIV-risk group. The association between HSV-2 and HIV prevalence was consistently stronger than other STIs or self-reported genital ulcer. If the strong associations between HSV-2 and HIV were interpreted causally these results implied that approximately half of the HIV infections observed in our study population were attributable to HSV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors examined in our analysis should remain targets of HIV prevention programs. Our results confirm that sexual risk factors for HIV infection continue to be an important part of Indian HIV epidemic 26 years after it began.
TL;DR: There is an urgent need to collect more comprehensive and reliable data at the global level across various indigenous communities and there is also an opportunity to reverse current trends in STIs through innovative, evidence-based and culturally appropriate targeted sexual health programmes.
Abstract: Socioeconomic and health disadvantage is widespread within and across indigenous communities in the world, leading to differentials in morbidity and mortality between indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, among indigenous populations are an emerging public health concern. The focus of this paper is on examining the STI epidemiology in indigenous communities in various parts of the world utilizing a range of data sources. Most of the STI research on global indigenous communities has concentrated on developed countries, neglecting more than half the world's indigenous people in the developing countries. This has resulted in major gaps in data at global level for STIs and HIV/AIDS among indigenous populations. Available data show that the prevalence of STIs is increasing among the indigenous communities and in several instances, the rates of these infections are higher than among non-indigenous populations. However, HIV still remains low when compared with the rates of other STIs. The paper argues that there is an urgent need to collect more comprehensive and reliable data at the global level across various indigenous communities. There is also an opportunity to reverse current trends in STIs through innovative, evidence-based and culturally appropriate targeted sexual health programmes.
TL;DR: A national household and DBS-based sexually transmitted infection (STI) surveillance system would enable monitoring, especially in relation to the HIV epidemic, and planning of evidence-based prevention and treatment programmes.
Abstract: Objectives To determine the prevalence and correlates of Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) and syphilis infections in the general population in India. Methods 2456 adults were surveyed in Hyderabad, Bangalore and Chandigarh in India. Socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were obtained through a questionnaire, and a dried blood spot (DBS) was collected from all individuals aged 18 years and over; sexual behaviour was collected from those aged 18e49 years. DBS samples were tested for HSV-2 and syphilis serology. The association between HSV-2 and syphilis infections with socio-demographic and behavioural variables was analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Results The prevalence of HSV-2 and syphilis was 10.1% and 1.7%, respectively. Geographic differences in HSV-2 prevalence were significant, while for syphilis it was comparable. Urbanerural differences in prevalence were only seen for syphilis. For both infections, the prevalence between males and females was not significantly different. In males and females, HSV-2 prevalence increased significantly with increasing age; for syphilis, a slight trend was seen only in females. In a multivariable analysis, HSV-2 infection in males and females was associated with site, religion and testing positive for syphilis, in addition to reporting $2 lifetime partners in the previous year among males and being ever married or having had sex with a non-regular partner in the last year among females. Conclusions The burden and geographic heterogeneity of HSV-2 and syphilis infections in India are significant. A national household and DBS-based sexually transmitted infection (STI) surveillance system would enable monitoring, especially in relation to the HIV epidemic, and planning of evidence-based prevention and treatment programmes.
01 Jan 1982