Other affiliations: Foundation University, Islamabad, Cranfield University, University of Cambridge ...read more
Bio: Qiming Zhang is an academic researcher from Pennsylvania State University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Dielectric & Ferroelectricity. The author has an hindex of 80, co-authored 466 publications receiving 26046 citations. Previous affiliations of Qiming Zhang include Foundation University, Islamabad & Cranfield University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that a very high energy density with fast discharge speed and low loss can be obtained in defect-modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) polymers by combining nonpolar and polar molecular structural changes of the polymer with the proper dielectric constants.
Abstract: Dielectric polymers with high dipole density have the potential to achieve very high energy density, which is required in many modern electronics and electric systems. We demonstrate that a very high energy density with fast discharge speed and low loss can be obtained in defect-modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) polymers. This is achieved by combining nonpolar and polar molecular structural changes of the polymer with the proper dielectric constants, to avoid the electric displacement saturation at electric fields well below the breakdown field. The results indicate that a very high dielectric constant may not be desirable to reach a very high energy density.
TL;DR: An exceptionally high electrostrictive response was observed in electron-irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer, suggesting that the electron irradiation breaks up the coherent polarization domain in normal ferroelectric P( VDF- TrFE)Copolymer into nanopolar regions that transform the material into a relaxor ferroElectric.
Abstract: An exceptionally high electrostrictive response ( approximately 4 percent) was observed in electron-irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer. The material exhibits typical relaxor ferroelectric behavior, suggesting that the electron irradiation breaks up the coherent polarization domain (all-trans chains) in normal ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer into nanopolar regions (nanometer-size, all-trans chains interrupted by trans and gauche bonds) that transform the material into a relaxor ferroelectric. The expanding and contracting of these polar regions under external fields, coupled with a large difference in the lattice strain between the polar and nonpolar phases, generate an ultrahigh strain response.
TL;DR: A giant electrocaloric effect is demonstrated in 350-nanometer PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3 films near the ferroelectric Curie temperature of 222°C, which may find application in electrical refrigeration.
Abstract: An applied electric field can reversibly change the temperature of an electrocaloric material under adiabatic conditions, and the effect is strongest near phase transitions. We demonstrate a giant electrocaloric effect (0.48 kelvin per volt) in 350-nanometer PbZr 0.95 Ti 0.05 O 3 films near the ferroelectric Curie temperature of 222°C. A large electrocaloric effect may find application in electrical refrigeration.
TL;DR: A new class of all-organic field-type EAP composites is reported, which can exhibit high elastic energy densities induced by an electric field of only 13 V µm-1, and could find applications as artificial muscles, ‘smart skins’ for drag reduction, and in microfluidic systems for drug delivery.
Abstract: Electroactive polymers (EAPs) can behave as actuators, changing their shape in response to electrical stimulation. EAPs that are controlled by external electric fields--referred to here as field-type EAPs--include ferroelectric polymers, electrostrictive polymers, dielectric elastomers and liquid crystal polymers. Field-type EAPs can exhibit fast response speeds, low hysteresis and strain levels far above those of traditional piezoelectric materials, with elastic energy densities even higher than those of piezoceramics. However, these polymers also require a high field (>70 V micro m(-1)) to generate such high elastic energy densities (>0.1 J cm(-3); refs 4, 5, 9, 10). Here we report a new class of all-organic field-type EAP composites, which can exhibit high elastic energy densities induced by an electric field of only 13 V micro m(-1). The composites are fabricated from an organic filler material possessing very high dielectric constant dispersed in an electrostrictive polymer matrix. The composites can exhibit high net dielectric constants while retaining the flexibility of the matrix. These all-organic actuators could find applications as artificial muscles, 'smart skins' for drag reduction, and in microfluidic systems for drug delivery.
TL;DR: It was determined that a large ECE can be realized in the ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer at temperatures above the feroelectric-paraelectric transition (above 70°C), where an isothermal entropy change of more than 55 joules per kilogram per kelvin degree and adiabatic temperature change were observed.
Abstract: Applying an electrical field to a polar polymer may induce a large change in the dipolar ordering, and if the associated entropy changes are large, they can be explored in cooling applications. With the use of the Maxwell relation between the pyroelectric coefficient and the electrocaloric effect (ECE), it was determined that a large ECE can be realized in the ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer at temperatures above the ferroelectric-paraelectric transition (above 70°C), where an isothermal entropy change of more than 55 joules per kilogram per kelvin degree and adiabatic temperature change of more than 12°C were observed. We further showed that a similar level of ECE near room temperature can be achieved by working with the relaxor ferroelectric polymer of P(VDF-TrFE-chlorofluoroethylene).
01 May 1993
TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.
Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.
TL;DR: In this paper, a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) is presented.
Abstract: Deposits of clastic carbonate-dominated (calciclastic) sedimentary slope systems in the rock record have been identified mostly as linearly-consistent carbonate apron deposits, even though most ancient clastic carbonate slope deposits fit the submarine fan systems better. Calciclastic submarine fans are consequently rarely described and are poorly understood. Subsequently, very little is known especially in mud-dominated calciclastic submarine fan systems. Presented in this study are a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) that reveals a >250 m thick calciturbidite complex deposited in a calciclastic submarine fan setting. Seven facies are recognised from core and thin section characterisation and are grouped into three carbonate turbidite sequences. They include: 1) Calciturbidites, comprising mostly of highto low-density, wavy-laminated bioclast-rich facies; 2) low-density densite mudstones which are characterised by planar laminated and unlaminated muddominated facies; and 3) Calcidebrites which are muddy or hyper-concentrated debrisflow deposits occurring as poorly-sorted, chaotic, mud-supported floatstones. These
31 Oct 2001
TL;DR: The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as mentioned in this paper is an independent organization devoted to the development of standards for testing and materials, and is a member of IEEE 802.11.
Abstract: The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is an independent organization devoted to the development of standards.
TL;DR: This capacitance report reports a method of producing two-dimensional titanium carbide ‘clay’ using a solution of lithium fluoride and hydrochloric acid that offers a much faster route to film production as well as the avoidance of handling hazardous concentrated hydrofluoric acid.
Abstract: Safe and powerful energy storage devices are becoming increasingly important. Charging times of seconds to minutes, with power densities exceeding those of batteries, can in principle be provided by electrochemical capacitors--in particular, pseudocapacitors. Recent research has focused mainly on improving the gravimetric performance of the electrodes of such systems, but for portable electronics and vehicles volume is at a premium. The best volumetric capacitances of carbon-based electrodes are around 300 farads per cubic centimetre; hydrated ruthenium oxide can reach capacitances of 1,000 to 1,500 farads per cubic centimetre with great cyclability, but only in thin films. Recently, electrodes made of two-dimensional titanium carbide (Ti3C2, a member of the 'MXene' family), produced by etching aluminium from titanium aluminium carbide (Ti3AlC2, a 'MAX' phase) in concentrated hydrofluoric acid, have been shown to have volumetric capacitances of over 300 farads per cubic centimetre. Here we report a method of producing this material using a solution of lithium fluoride and hydrochloric acid. The resulting hydrophilic material swells in volume when hydrated, and can be shaped like clay and dried into a highly conductive solid or rolled into films tens of micrometres thick. Additive-free films of this titanium carbide 'clay' have volumetric capacitances of up to 900 farads per cubic centimetre, with excellent cyclability and rate performances. This capacitance is almost twice that of our previous report, and our synthetic method also offers a much faster route to film production as well as the avoidance of handling hazardous concentrated hydrofluoric acid.