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Author

Qinlong Li

Other affiliations: University of Hong Kong
Bio: Qinlong Li is an academic researcher from Xi'an Jiaotong University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Antenna (radio) & Patch antenna. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 19 publications receiving 231 citations. Previous affiliations of Qinlong Li include University of Hong Kong.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper provides a systematic review of the mutual coupling in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, including the effects on performances of MIMO systems and various decoupling techniques.
Abstract: This paper provides a systematic review of the mutual coupling in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, including the effects on performances of MIMO systems and various decoupling techniques. The mutual coupling changes the antenna characteristics in an array, and therefore, degrades the system performance of the MIMO system and causes the spectral regrowth. Although the system performance can be partially improved by calibrating out the mutual coupling in the digital domain, it is more effective to use decoupling techniques (from the antenna point) to overcome the mutual coupling effects. Some popular decoupling techniques for MIMO systems (especially for massive MIMO base station antennas) are also presented.

283 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown in this paper that the outage capacity of the mmWave handset can be clearly improved by reducing the mutual coupling.
Abstract: The fifth generation (5G) millimeter-wave (mmWave) handset demands a cost-effective mmWave array antenna with beam steering capability to overcome the high-pass loss and to ensure seamless connectivity. Unlike sub-6-GHz handsets, emerging mmWave handsets usually employ phased array antennas with a reasonably large number of elements. Unfortunately, due to the legacy of a few antennas in sub-6-GHz handsets, the mutual coupling effect on the mmWave handset has not been thoroughly investigated. In this paper, we study the mutual coupling effect on the mmWave handset performance by comparing array antennas with different inter-element spacing and different configurations. It is found that mutual coupling tends to increase the active reflection (especially at large scanning angles), which in turn reduces the realized gain and maximum scanning angle of the phased array antenna. For a sub-6-GHz multiple-input multiple-output handset with two or four antenna ports and fully digital precoding/decoding, 10-dB isolation is usually regarded as good enough. It is shown in this paper, however, that the outage capacity of the mmWave handset can be clearly improved by reducing the mutual coupling.

39 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed decoupling superstrate can be extended to massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems and help restore the radiation patterns, bring down the active voltage sanding wave ratio, and broaden the bandwidth of the array.
Abstract: In this paper, a $\varepsilon $ -negative metasurface superstrate is proposed for mutual coupling reduction of large antenna arrays. Unlike the previous decoupling metasurface works that are mostly confined to two-ports antennas, the proposed decoupling superstrate can be extended to massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. A $4\times 4$ antenna array is used as an example to illustrate the decoupling performance of the proposed metasurface. With the decoupling metasurface, the worst mutual coupling of the antenna array is improved by 8 dB over the operation bandwidth with a maximum mutual coupling reduction of 25 dB. Moreover, the decoupling metasurface also help restore the radiation patterns, bring down the active voltage sanding wave ratio, and broaden the bandwidth of the array.

35 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents a radar cross-section (RCS) reduction technique by using the coding diffusion metasurface, which is optimised through a random optimization algorithm, which shows obvious RCS reduction when compared to a metallic plate of the same size.
Abstract: This paper presents a radar cross-section (RCS) reduction technique by using the coding diffusion metasurface, which is optimised through a random optimization algorithm. The design consists of two unit cells, which are elements ‘1’ and ‘0’. The reflection phase between the two-unit cells has a 180° ± 37° phase difference. It has a working frequency band from 8.6 GHz to 22.5 GHz, with more than 9 dB RCS reduction. The monostatic RCS reduction has a wider bandwidth of coding diffusion metasurface as compared to the traditional chessboard metasurface. In addition, the bistatic performance of the designed metasurfaces is observed at 15.4 GHz, which shows obvious RCS reduction when compared to a metallic plate of the same size. The simulated and measured result shows the proficiency of the designed metasurface.

26 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An effective technique to reduce the mutual coupling between two adjacent probe-fed microstrip antenna elements operating at 3.5 GHz in multiple input multiple output (MIMO) configurations through loading of shorting pins at appropriate locations is provided.
Abstract: This paper provides an effective technique to reduce the mutual coupling between two adjacent probe-fed microstrip antenna elements operating at 3.5 GHz in multiple input multiple output (M...

25 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that the mutual-coupling reduction methods inspired by MTM and MTS concepts can provide a higher level of isolation between neighbouring radiating elements using easily realizable and cost-effective decoupling configurations that have negligible consequence on the array’s characteristics such as bandwidth, gain and radiation efficiency, and physical footprint.
Abstract: Nowadays synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antenna systems with the capability to radiate waves in more than one pattern and polarization are playing a key role in modern telecommunication and radar systems. This is possible with the use of antenna arrays as they offer advantages of high gain and beamforming capability, which can be utilized for controlling radiation pattern for electromagnetic (EM) interference immunity in wireless systems. However, with the growing demand for compact array antennas, the physical footprint of the arrays needs to be smaller and the consequent of this is severe degradation in the performance of the array resulting from strong mutual-coupling and crosstalk effects between adjacent radiating elements. This review presents a detailed systematic and theoretical study of various mutual-coupling suppression (decoupling) techniques with a strong focus on metamaterial (MTM) and metasurface (MTS) approaches. While the performance of systems employing antenna arrays can be enhanced by calibrating out the interferences digitally, however it is more efficient to apply decoupling techniques at the antenna itself. Previously various simple and cost-effective approaches have been demonstrated to effectively suppress unwanted mutual-coupling in arrays. Such techniques include the use of defected ground structure (DGS), parasitic or slot element, dielectric resonator antenna (DRA), complementary split-ring resonators (CSRR), decoupling networks, P.I.N or varactor diodes, electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structures, etc. In this review, it is shown that the mutual-coupling reduction methods inspired By MTM and MTS concepts can provide a higher level of isolation between neighbouring radiating elements using easily realizable and cost-effective decoupling configurations that have negligible consequence on the array’s characteristics such as bandwidth, gain and radiation efficiency, and physical footprint.

226 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Different MIMO antenna design techniques and all of their mutual coupling reduction techniques through various structures and mechanisms are presented with multiple examples and characteristics comparison.
Abstract: In recent years, multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antennas with the ability to radiate waves in more than one pattern and polarization play a great role in modern telecommunication systems. This paper provides a theoretical review of different mutual coupling reduction techniques in MIMO antenna systems. The increase in the mutual coupling can affect the antenna characteristics drastically and therefore degrades the performance of the MIMO systems. It is possible to improve the performance partially by calibrating the mutual coupling in the digital domain. However, the simple and effective approach is to use the techniques, such as defected ground structure, parasitic or slot element, complementary split ring resonator, and decoupling networks which can overcome the mutual coupling effects by means of physical implementation. An extensive discussion on the basis of different mutual coupling reduction techniques, their examples, and comparative study is still rare in the literature. Therefore, in this paper, different MIMO antenna design techniques and all of their mutual coupling reduction techniques through various structures and mechanisms are presented with multiple examples and characteristics comparison.

197 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a wideband orthogonal-mode dual-antenna pair with a shared radiator for 5G MIMO metal-rimmed smartphones is presented, which shows a wide impedance bandwidth of 3.3-5.0 GHz and a high isolation of more than 21.0 dB across the entire band without using any external decoupling structures.
Abstract: This article presents a wideband orthogonal-mode dual-antenna pair with a shared radiator for fifth-generation (5G) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) metal-rimmed smartphones. The wideband decoupling property of the dual-antenna pair is realized by the combination of the orthogonal monopole/dipole modes in the lower band and the orthogonal slot/open-slot modes in the higher band. With the orthogonal-mode design scheme, the dual-antenna pair shows a wide impedance bandwidth of 3.3–5.0 GHz and a high isolation of more than 21.0 dB across the entire band without using any external decoupling structures. By arranging four such dual-antenna pairs at two side edges of the smartphone, an $8 \times 8$ MIMO system is fulfilled. Both the simulation and measurement results show that the proposed $8 \times 8$ MIMO system could offer an isolation of better than 12.0 dB and an envelope correlation coefficient of lower than 0.11 between all ports. The measured average antenna efficiencies are 74.7% and 57.8% for the two antenna elements of the dual-antenna pair. We portend that the proposed design scheme, with merits of shared radiator, wide bandwidth, and metal rim compatibility, has the potential for the application of future 5G smartphones.

152 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel self-decoupled multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna pair with a shared radiator with promising potential for the future highly integrated MIMO antennas for 5G smartphones is proposed.
Abstract: In this article, a novel self-decoupled multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna pair with a shared radiator is proposed for fifth-generation (5G) smartphones. In our approach, a radiator is directly excited by two feeding ports, and interestingly, the two ports are naturally isolated across a wide bandwidth without using any extra decoupling structures. To offer a deep physical insight of the self-decoupling mechanism, a mode-cancellation method based on the synthesis of common and differential modes is developed for the first time. The proposed self-decoupled antenna pair shows a good isolation of better than 11.5 dB across the 5G N77 band (3.3–4.2 GHz) with a radiation pattern diversity property. Based on the self-decoupled antenna pair, an $8 \times 8$ MIMO antenna system, constituted by four sets of antenna pairs, is simulated, fabricated, and measured to validate the concept. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed $8 \times 8$ MIMO system can offer an isolation of better than 10.5 dB between all ports and a high total efficiency of 63.1%–85.1% across 3.3–4.2 GHz. With the advantages of self-decoupling, shared radiator, simple structure, wide bandwidth, and high efficiency, the proposed design scheme exhibits promising potential for the future highly integrated MIMO antennas for 5G smartphones.

137 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a general decoupling method based on a new perspective of common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) cancellation is proposed for two closely spaced antennas, where the mutual coupling effect can be analyzed and solved by exciting them simultaneously with in-phase and out-of-phase signals.
Abstract: In this article, a general decoupling method based on a new perspective of common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) cancellation is proposed. For two closely spaced antennas, the mutual coupling effect can be analyzed and solved by exciting them simultaneously with in-phase (CM) and out-of-phase (DM) signals. It is theoretically proved that, if CM and DM impedances are the same, the mutual coupling effect between two separated antennas can be totally eliminated. Therefore, we can solve the coupling problem by CM and DM impedance analysis and exploit the unique field properties of characteristic modes to assist in antenna decoupling in a physical intuitive way. To validate the feasibility of this method, two practical design examples, including the decoupling between closely spaced dipole antennas and planar inverted-F antennas, are proposed. Both design examples have demonstrated that the proposed method can provide a systemic design guideline for antenna decoupling and achieve better decoupling performance compared to the conventional decoupling techniques. We forecast the proposed decoupling scheme, with a simplified decoupling procedure, has great potential for the applications of antenna arrays and multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems.

105 citations