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Qona Rankin

Bio: Qona Rankin is an academic researcher from Royal College of Art. The author has contributed to research in topics: Dyslexia & Art school. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 16 publications receiving 178 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper found that poor drawing may be a particular problem for students with dyslexia (and a high proportion of art school students is dyslexic), and that poor drawers are less good at copying simple angles and proportions.
Abstract: Some art students, despite being at art school, cannot draw very well, and would like to be able to draw well. It has been suggested that poor drawing may be a particular problem for students with dyslexia (and a high proportion of art school students is dyslexic). In Study 1 we studied 277 art students, using a questionnaire to assess self-perceived drawing ability and a range of background measures, including demography, education, a history of dyslexia, a self-administered spelling test, and personality and educational variables. In Study 2 we gave detailed drawing tests to a sample of 38 of the art students, stratified by self-rated drawing ability and spelling ability, and to 30 control participants. Students perceiving themselves as good at drawing did indeed draw better than self-perceived poor drawers, although the latter were still better than non-art student controls. In neither Study 1 nor Study 2 did skill at drawing relate to dyslexia or spelling ability, and neither did drawing ability relate to any of our wide range of background measures. However Study 2 did show that drawing ability was related both to ability at copying simple angles and proportions (using the “house” task of Cain, 1943), and also to visual memory (as suggested by Jones, 1922), poor drawers being less good at both immediate and delayed recall of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure.

54 citations

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TL;DR: The findings corroborate the findings of small-scale fMRI studies and provide insights into the properties of the developing artistic brain.

50 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Assessment of local and global visual processing ability in art students and controls found that the relationship between local processing and drawing ability is independent of individual differences in nonverbal IQ and artistic ability.
Abstract: Individuals with drawing talent have previously been shown to exhibit enhanced local visual processing ability. The aim of the current study was to assess whether local processing biases associated with drawing ability result from a reduced ability to cohere local stimuli into global forms, or an increased ability to disregard global aspects of an image. Local and global visual processing ability was assessed in art students and controls using the Group Embedded Figures Task, Navon shape stimuli, the Block Design Task and the Autism Spectrum Quotient, whilst controlling for nonverbal IQ and artistic ability. Local processing biases associated with drawing appear to arise from an enhancement of local processing alongside successful filtering of global information, rather than a reduction in global processing. The relationship between local processing and drawing ability is independent of individual differences in nonverbal IQ and artistic ability. These findings have implications for bottom-up and attentio...

50 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper investigated how differences in the acquisition of representational drawing skill could be explained by individual differences in personality, approaches to learning, and practice, and concluded that expertise typically is acquired as a result of deliberate practice and a flexible approach for learning.
Abstract: Research suggests that expertise typically is acquired as a result of deliberate practice and a flexible approach to strategies for learning. Representational drawing is a complex skill which underpins performance in many branches of the visual arts and has the characteristics of other domains of expertise. It is therefore likely that approaches to learning and certain types of practice characterize the development of expertise in this domain. The current study aimed to investigate how differences in the acquisition of representational drawing skill could be explained by individual differences in personality, approaches to learning, and practice. A cohort of art students (n 682) completed questionnaires about their artistic ability, personality, and approaches to learning. A subset completed tasks of drawing ability (n 301), the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test (ROCFT), and an IQ test (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices). Drawing ability related to time spent drawing and use of drawing techniques, with additional independent effects of the copying and recalling a complex geometric figure. Personality predicted approaches to learning, which in turn predicted differences in the outcome variables: practice, use of techniques, and drawing ability. Personality did not directly predict drawing ability when approaches to learning were taken into account. Surface learners spent more time drawing, learned fewer techniques, and acquired a lower level of skill and strategic learners acquired a higher level of drawing skill. The resulting model of drawing ability development can be applied to expertise in a range of creative and noncreative domains

14 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the validity of shape analysis techniques for measuring drawing accuracy and by measuring reproduction of angles and proportions in a rendering and non-rendering task was found to be correlated with subjective rating scores of accuracy.
Abstract: In 1943 Theron Cain studied art students’ ability to draw a series of simple two-dimensional shapes, and found this ability to be correlated with formal drawing assessments at art school. This provided evidence that some aspects of drawing ability could be quantified, and that performance on simple drawing tasks could predict higher level attainment. The current study sought to validate Cain’s findings by exploring the validity of shape analysis techniques for measuring drawing accuracy and by measuring reproduction of angles and proportions in a rendering and nonrendering task. Drawing accuracy derived from shape analysis methods was found to be correlated with subjective rating scores of accuracy. Subjective ratings were based upon holistic shape attributes for organic stimuli, and local shape attributes for geometric stimuli. The ability to represent simple angular and proportional relationships also related to higher level drawing ability in both rendering and nonrendering scenarios. These findings provide support for both the methodological approach and the theoretical implications of Cain’s early empirical study into observa- tional drawing accuracy

8 citations


Cited by
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TL;DR: In this article, the authors review the scientific knowledge on expertise and expert performance and how experts may differ from non-experts in terms of their development, training, reasoning, knowledge, social support, and innate talent.
Abstract: This is the first handbook where the world’s foremost “experts on expertise” review our scientific knowledge on expertise and expert performance and how experts may differ from non-experts in terms of their development, training, reasoning, knowledge, social support, and innate talent. Methods are described for the study of experts’ knowledge and their performance of representative tasks from their domain of expertise. The development of expertise is also studied by retrospective interviews and the daily lives of experts are studied with diaries. In 15 major domains of expertise, the leading researchers summarize our knowledge of the structure and acquisition of expert skill and knowledge and discuss future prospects. General issues that cut across most domains are reviewed in chapters on various aspects of expertise, such as general and practical intelligence, differences in brain activity, self-regulated learning, deliberate practice, aging, knowledge management, and creativity.

1,268 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Focus on improving the acuity of multisensory temporal function may have important implications for the amelioration of the "higher-order" deficits that serve as the defining features of these disorders.

233 citations

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TL;DR: For instance, drawing on the right side of the brain is one of the most effective teaching methods for drawing ever developed as mentioned in this paper, and it has been shown to be effective in teaching the ability to learn to draw and to see things more clearly.
Abstract: Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain is one of the most effective teaching methods for drawing ever developed. In this tutorial, the participant will be introduced to the underlying theory behind the method. The bulk of the session will involve practical hands-on exercises, which demonstrate the participants' ability to learn to draw, and to learn to \"see things more clearly.\"In this tutorial you will learn basic strategies for accessing the visual, perceptual mode of thinking. This type of thinking is learned through the acquisition of very basic drawing skills and the acquisition of an understanding of the nature of drawing.

209 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a bottom-up perspective emphasizing accurate perception achieved by suppressing perceptual constancies and other sources of misperception, and a top-down view emphasizing knowledge-facilitated selection of information important for object depiction were compared.
Abstract: Traditionally, two theories have been proposed to understand realistic drawing: (a) a bottom-up perspective emphasizing accurate perception achieved by suppressing perceptual constancies and other sources of misperception, and (b) a top-down view emphasizing knowledge-facilitated selection of information important for object depiction. This study compares the predictive validity of the two. Artists and nonartists completed tasks measuring the ability to suppress shape and size constancies, a limited line-tracing task measuring visual selection performance, and a freehand drawing task assessing realistic drawing ability. Evidence is reported that shows both bottom-up and top-down factors are associated with drawing accuracy. Artists outperformed nonartists on drawing and limited-line tracing accuracy and made smaller size (but not shape) constancy errors; drawing accuracy was positively correlated with limited-line tracing and negatively correlated with size-constancy errors in a depth cue condition. We propose integrating the two traditional approaches into a unified perspective emphasizing visual attention, rather than early perception, in explaining drawing accuracy.

61 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The findings suggest that the emergence of visual artistic skills is supported by plasticity in neural pathways that enable creative cognition and mediate perceptuomotor integration.

57 citations