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R. E. Moreau

Bio: R. E. Moreau is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Stephanoaetus & Fledge. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 11 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
03 Apr 2008-Ibis
TL;DR: Breeding records in Tropical Africa show, when analysed with reference to egg-dates, that as a rule in each area the young get through their fledging period, or at least the later, unbrooded part, during the local cool dry season.
Abstract: Summary An account is given of one hundred hours of observations at a Bateleur'a nest in north-eastern Tanganyike Territory. The adults were a white-backed bird and a chestnut-backed, with a sub-adult; probably over three years old, in association with them. The youngster took 130 dap to fledge. During at least part of the time all its food was brought by the white-backed adult. When the fledgling was about one month old its feeds averaged about one in eight hours; during its last week in the nest feeds were nearly three times as frequent. Literature and unpublished data are reviewed in relation to special points of interest, viz.:— Slow development and maturation accords with longevity. Fledging period apparently longer than authentically recorded for any land bird. First wing-moult may have started before first flight. Tail length is greater in proportion to wing in juveniles than in adults. Proportion of white-becks to chestnut-backs differs in parts of Africa, being least in South africa. White-tailed birds seem confined to Sudanese semi-desert belt. Voice, flight habits and wing-noises seem to differ in parts of Africa. Food comprises both carrion and live prey, especially snakes, but not poultry or other birds. Claws are not less sharp than those of Stephanoaetus and Polemaetus. Breeding records in Tropical Africa show, when analysed with reference to egg-dates, that as a rule in each area the young get through their fledging period, or at least the later, unbrooded part, during the local cool dry season. Psychologically the Bateleur is most peculiar: in the wild it is shy of man, sociable with big birdv of its own and other species, and breeding birds tolerate sub-adults: in captivity it becomes unusually tame, has a grecting ceremony for friends and likes to be handled.

11 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
03 Apr 2008-Ibis
TL;DR: Average clutch-size is characteristic for each genus and each family of birds in the same region and in nidifugous species, though food for the brood is thought to be the basic factor involved in most cases.
Abstract: Summary. 1 Average clutch-size is characteristic for each genus and each family of birds in the same region. 2 In almost all families, clutch-size is much smaller in equatorial Africa than in mid-Europe. 3 In mid-European small passerines, those with comparatively safe nesting-sites tend to have larger average clutches and longer nestling periods than those building open nests. 4 Swifts and petrels have safe nesting-sites and long nestling periods, but only small clutches, correlated with a scarce or uncertain food supply for the young. 5 In general, the length of the incubation period is correlated with the length of the nestling period in birds, probably because it is difficult to modify the rate of development except as a whole. 6 In nidifugous species, the specific differences in clutch-size have not been accounted for, though food for the brood is thought to be the basic factor involved in most cases. The number of eggs that the hen Can cover is not a primary factor in most cases, but may sometimes provide a secondary limit.

193 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2003-Oikos
TL;DR: This paper investigated the potential impact of precipitation variation caused by climate change on raptors in arid savanna using the tawny eagle (Aquila rapax) in the southern Kalahari as a case study.
Abstract: Arid savannas are regarded as one of the ecosystems most likely to be affected by climate change. In these dry conditions, even top predators like raptors are affected by water availability and precipitation. However, few research initiatives have addressed the question of how climate change will affect population dynamics and extinction risk of particular species in arid ecosystems. Here, we use an individual-oriented modeling approach to conduct experiments on the population dynamics of long lived raptors. We investigate the potential impact of precipitation variation caused by climate change on raptors in arid savanna using the tawny eagle (Aquila rapax) in the southern Kalahari as a case study. We simulated various modifications of precipitation scenarios predicted for climate change, such as lowered annual precipitation mean, increased inter-annual variation and increased auto-correlation in precipitation. We found a high impact of these modifications on extinction risk of tawny eagles, with reduced population persistence in most cases. Decreased mean annual precipitation and increased inter-annual variation both caused dramatic decreases in population persistence. Increased auto-correlation in precipitation led only to slightly accelerated extinction of simulated populations. Finally, for various patterns of periodically fluctuating precipitation, we found both increased and decreased population persistence. In summary, our results suggest that the impacts on raptor population dynamics and survival caused by climate change in arid savannas will be great. We emphasize that even if under climate change the mean annual precipitation remains constant but the inter-annual variation increases the persistence of raptor populations in arid savannas will decrease considerably. This suggests a new dimension of climate change driven impacts on population persistence and consequently on biodiversity. However, more investigations on particular species and/or species groups are needed to increase our understanding of how climate change will impact population dynamics and how this will influence species diversity and biodiversity.

66 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
03 Apr 2008-Ibis
TL;DR: The species of eagles occurring in Embu district are detailed, with general notes on the methods and scope of the study, and the inter-relations of the various species are discussed from the points of view of territorial agressiveness and competition for prey.
Abstract: SUMMARY. 1 The species of eagles occurring in Embu district are detailed, with general notes on the methods and scope of the study. 2 The vegetation and climate of Embu district are described, and their effect upon eagles is discussed. 3 Population and inter-relations. The actual population of eagles and of the Secretary Bird in an area of approximately 146 sq. miles is given and their remarkable local concentrations are described. The inter-relations of the various species are discussed from the points of view of territorial agressiveness and competition for prey. 4 Detailed accounts are given of the breeding biology of Sagittarius serpentarius, Aquila verreauxi, A. wahlbergi, Hieraaetus spilogaster, Polmaetus bellicosus, Stephano-aetus coronatus and Circaetus cinereus, and some information for Terathopius ecaudatus, Circaetus pectoralis, and Aquila rapax, Hieraaetus ayresi, Lophaetus occipitalis, and Cuncuma vocifer. The headings for each species include: “Nests and nest-building”, “Incubation period”, “Fledging period” (with special attention to food), and “Post-fledging period”. 5 The following special aspects of breeding behaviour are described and discussed: (1) Display, (2) Use of green branches, (3) Breeding seasons, (4) Breeding success, (5) Breeding frequency.

39 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1977-Ostrich
TL;DR: There was no significant difference between the mean reproductive success of five African eagle species that lay two eggs and that of fiveAfrican eagle species laying one egg, even excluding inequalities due to sample size, and other factors.
Abstract: Summary Brown, L. H., Gargett, V. & Steyn, P. 1977. Breeding success in some African Eagles related to theories about sibling aggression and its effects. Ostrich 48:65-71. Previous explanations for fatal inter-sibling strife in eagles (lack of food, extra aggressiveness which enhances survival, and an expression of the innate aggressiveness or territoriality of raptors) can not be supported by recent evidence. The latest theory, that the second egg acts as a “reserve”, is examined. If so, eagles normally laying two eggs should have better reproductive success than eagles laying a single egg. However there was no significant difference between the mean reproductive success of five African eagle species that lay two eggs and that of five African eagle species laying one egg. Even excluding inequalities due to sample size, and other factors, the overall finding is the same. In Verreaux's Eagle Aquila verreauxi for which the largest number of records is available there was a significantly higher total loss in...

36 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2003-The Auk
TL;DR: The review of the literature suggests that the evolution of group living in many raptors may be independent of delayed dispersal, and that the factors important in explaining the Evolution of that behavior depend upon the benefits of groupLiving.
Abstract: Cooperative breeding, in which more than two individuals live in a group and raise offspring, usually in a single nest, is found in only 3% of avian species. On the basis of a review of the literature, we found reports of groups (usually trios) at nest sites in 42 species of diurnal raptors. At least one example of cooperative breeding was found in 29% of genera and 14% of species, distributed in both Accipitridae and Falconidae. Given the difficulty of obtaining behavioral observations necessary to detect cooperative breeding in most raptor species, combined with the large number of species that have been poorly studied, cooperative breeding in diurnal raptors may be more common than our data indicate. However, when data on the sex of the extra bird(s) or relationships among group members were available, patterns were quite varied. For 7 of 13 species, groups primarily contained multiple adult males, though three of those species also had groups formed from offspring that had delayed dispersal; ...

34 citations