Author

# R. W. Maccormack

Bio: R. W. Maccormack is an academic researcher from Ames Research Center. The author has contributed to research in topics: Finite element method & Reynolds equation. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 92 citations.

##### Papers

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01 Jul 1976

TL;DR: In this article, a new numerical method used to drastically reduce the computation time required to solve the Navier-Stokes equations at flight Reynolds numbers is described, which makes it possible and practical to calculate many important three-dimensional, high Reynolds number flow fields on computers.

Abstract: A new numerical method used to drastically reduce the computation time required to solve the Navier-Stokes equations at flight Reynolds numbers is described. The new method makes it possible and practical to calculate many important three-dimensional, high Reynolds number flow fields on computers.

93 citations

##### Cited by

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TL;DR: In this paper, an automatic grid generation program is employed, and because an implicit finite-difference algorithm for the flow equations is used, time steps are not severely limited when grid points are finely distributed.

Abstract: Finite-difference procedures are used to solve either the Euler equations or the "thin-layer" Navier-Stokes equations subject to arbitrary boundary conditions. An automatic grid generation program is employed, and because an implicit finite-difference algorithm for the flow equations is used, time steps are not severely limited when grid points are finely distributed. Computational efficiency and compatibility to vectorized computer processors is maintained by use of approximate factorization techniques. Computed results for both inviscid and viscous flow about airfoils are described and compared to viscous known solutions.

691 citations

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TL;DR: The field of computational fluid dynamics during recent years has developed sufficiently to initiate some changes in traditional methods of aerodynamic design, and numerical simulations offer the potential of mending many ills of wind-tunnel and turbomachinery experiments and of providing thereby important new technical capabilities for the aerospace industry.

Abstract: Introduction E is an honor and challenge to present the Dryden Lecture ..i Research for 1979. Since my topic concerns a new trend in fluid mechanics, it should not be surprising that some aspects of this paper involve basic mechanics of turbulence, a field enriched by numerous contributions of Dr. Hugh L. Dryden. Having worked in related fields of fluid mechanics during past years, and long respected both his professional contributions and personal integrity, it is a special pleasure to present this Dryden lecture. The field of computational fluid dynamics during recent years has developed sufficiently to initiate some changes in traditional methods of aerodynamic design. Both computer power and numerical algorithm efficiency are simultaneously improving with time, while the energy resource for driving large wind tunnels is becoming progressively more valuable. Partly for these reasons it has been advocated that the impact of computational aerodynamics on future methods of aircraft design will be profound. ' Qualitatively, the changes taking place are not foreign to past experience in other fields of engineering. For example, trajectory mechanics and neutron transport mechanics already have been largely revolutionized by the computer. Computations rather than experiments now provide the principal source of detailed information in these fields. The amount of reactor experimentation required has been much reduced over former years; experiments now are performed mainly on clear, physically describable arrays of elements aimed at further confirmation of computational techniques; and better designs are achieved than with former experimental methods alone. Similar changes in the relative roles of experimental and computational aerodynamics are anticipated in the future. There are three compelling motivations for vigorously developing computational aerodynamics. One is to provide important new technological capabilities that cannot be provided by experimental facilities. Because of their fundamental limitations, wind tunnels have rarely been able to simulate, for example, Reynolds numbers of aircraft flight, flowfield temperatures around atmosphere entry vehicles, aerodynamics of probes entering planetary atmospheres, aeroelastic distortions present in flight, or the propulsiveexternal flow interaction in flight. In addition, transonic wind tunnels are notoriously limited by wall and support interference; and stream nonuniformities of wind tunnels severely affect laminar-turbulent transition. Moreover, the dynamic-aerodynamic interaction between vehicle motion in flight and transition-dependent separated flow also is inaccessible to wind-tunnel simulation. In still different ways ground facilities for turbomachinery experiments are limited in their ability, for example, to simulate flight inlet-flow nonuniformities feeding into a compressor stage, or to determine detailed flowfields between rotating blades. Numerical flow simulations, on the other hand, have none of these fundamental limitations, but have their own: computer speed and memory. These latter limitations are fewer, but previously have been much more restrictive overall because the full Navier-Stokes equations are of such great complexity that only highly truncated and approximate forms could be handled in the past. In recent years the Navier-Stokes equations have begun to yield under computational attack with the largest current computers. Since the fundamental limitations of computational speed and memory are rapidly decreasing with time, whereas the fundamental limitations of experimental facilities are not, numerical simulations offer the potential of mending many ills of wind-tunnel and turbomachinery experiments, and of providing thereby important new technical capabilities for the aerospace industry. A second compelling motivation concerns energy conservation. The large developmental wind tunnels require large amounts of energy, whereas computers require comparatively

689 citations

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01 Jan 1981TL;DR: In this paper, a second-order accurate method for solving viscous flow equations has been proposed that preserves conservation form, requires no block or scalar tridiagonal inversions, is simple and straightforward to program (estimated 10% modification for the update of many existing programs), and should easily adapt to current and future computer architectures.

Abstract: Although much progress has already been made In solving problems in aerodynamic design, many new developments are still needed before the equations for unsteady compressible viscous flow can be solved routinely. This paper describes one such development. A new method for solving these equations has been devised that 1) is second-order accurate in space and time, 2) is unconditionally stable, 3) preserves conservation form, 4) requires no block or scalar tridiagonal inversions, 5) is simple and straightforward to program (estimated 10% modification for the update of many existing programs), 6) is more efficient than present methods, and 7) should easily adapt to current and future computer architectures. Computational results for laminar and turbulent flows at Reynolds numbers from 3 x 10(exp 5) to 3 x 10(exp 7) and at CFL numbers as high as 10(exp 3) are compared with theory and experiment.

427 citations

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01 Jun 1978TL;DR: In this article, two complementary procedures were developed to calculate the viscous supersonic flow over conical shapes at large angles of attack, with application to cones and delta wings, respectively.

Abstract: Two complementary procedures were developed to calculate the viscous supersonic flow over conical shapes at large angles of attack, with application to cones and delta wings. In the first approach the flow is assumed to be conical and the governing equations are solved at a given Reynolds number with a time-marching explicit finite-difference algorithm. In the second method the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a space-marching implicit noniterative finite-difference algorithm. This latter approach is not restricted to conical shapes and provides a large improvement in computational efficiency over published methods. Results from the two procedures agree very well with each other and with available experimental data.

240 citations

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01 Jul 1983TL;DR: A new two-Equation model is introduced which shows advantages over other two-equation models with regard to numerical compatibility and the ability to predict low-Reynolds-number transitional phenomena.

Abstract: Turbulence modeling methods for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, including several zero- and two-equation eddy-viscosity models, are described and applied. Advantages and disadvantages of the models are discussed with respect to mathematical simplicity, conformity with physical theory, and numerical compatibility with methods. A new two-equation model is introduced which shows advantages over other two-equation models with regard to numerical compatibility and the ability to predict low-Reynolds-number transitional phenomena. Calculations of various transonic airfoil flows are compared with experimental results. A new implicit upwind-differencing method is used which enhances numerical stability and accuracy, and leads to rapidly convergent steady-state solutions.

237 citations