Author

# Raffaello D'Andrea

Other affiliations: Kiva Systems, Amazon.com, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne ...read more

Bio: Raffaello D'Andrea is an academic researcher from ETH Zurich. The author has contributed to research in topics: Iterative learning control & Optimal control. The author has an hindex of 61, co-authored 293 publications receiving 13619 citations. Previous affiliations of Raffaello D'Andrea include Kiva Systems & Amazon.com.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: A state space framework for posing problems of this type, and focus on systems whose model is spatially discrete, is developed using the l/sub 2/-induced norm as the performance criterion.

Abstract: This paper deals with analysis, synthesis, and implementation of distributed controllers, designed for spatially interconnected systems. We develop a state space framework for posing problems of this type, and focus on systems whose model is spatially discrete. In this paper, analysis and synthesis results are developed for this class of systems using the l/sub 2/-induced norm as the performance criterion. The results are stated in terms of linear matrix inequalities and are thus readily amenable to computation. A special implementation of the resulting controllers is presented, which is particularly attractive for distributed operation of the controller. Several examples are provided to further illustrate the application of the results.

838 citations

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TL;DR: The Kiva warehouse management system as discussed by the authors creates a new paradigm for pick-pack-and-ship warehouses that significantly improves worker productivity by using movable storage shelves that can be lifted by small, autonomous robots.

Abstract: The Kiva warehouse-management system creates a new paradigm for pick-pack-and-ship warehouses that significantly improves worker productivity. The Kiva system uses movable storage shelves that can be lifted by small, autonomous robots. By bringing the product to the worker, productivity is increased by a factor of two or more, while simultaneously improving accountability and flexibility. A Kiva installation for a large distribution center may require 500 or more vehicles. As such, the Kiva system represents the first commercially available, large-scale autonomous robot system. The first permanent installation of a Kiva system was deployed in the summer of 2006.

633 citations

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TL;DR: This work derives sufficient conditions in the form of finite-dimensional linear matrix inequalities when the interconnections are assumed to be ideal to synthesize a distributed dynamic output feedback controller achieving H/sub /spl infin// performance for a system composed of different interconnected sub-units.

Abstract: We consider the problem of synthesizing a distributed dynamic output feedback controller achieving H/sub /spl infin// performance for a system composed of different interconnected sub-units, when the topology of the underlying graph is arbitrary. First, using tools inspired by dissipativity theory, we derive sufficient conditions in the form of finite-dimensional linear matrix inequalities when the interconnections are assumed to be ideal. These inequalities are coupled in a way that reflects the spatial structure of the problem and can be exploited to design distributed synthesis algorithms. We then investigate the case of lossy interconnection links and derive similar results for systems whose interconnection relations can be captured by a class of integral quadratic constraints that includes constant delays.

459 citations

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ETH Zurich

^{1}TL;DR: A simple and intuitive policy gradient method for improving parametrized quadrocopter multi-flips by combining iterative experiments with information from a first-principles model is described.

Abstract: We describe a simple and intuitive policy gradient method for improving parametrized quadrocopter multi-flips by combining iterative experiments with information from a first-principles model. We start by formulating an N-flip maneuver as a five-step primitive with five adjustable parameters. Optimization using a low-order first-principles 2D vertical plane model of the quadrocopter yields an initial set of parameters and a corrective matrix. The maneuver is then repeatedly performed with the vehicle. At each iteration the state error at the end of the primitive is used to update the maneuver parameters via a gradient adjustment. The method is demonstrated at the ETH Zurich Flying Machine Arena testbed on quadrotor helicopters performing and improving on flips, double flips and triple flips.

370 citations

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ETH Zurich

^{1}TL;DR: An algorithm that generates collision-free trajectories in three dimensions for multiple vehicles within seconds using sequential convex programming that approximates non-convex constraints by using convex ones is presented.

Abstract: This paper presents an algorithm that generates collision-free trajectories in three dimensions for multiple vehicles within seconds. The problem is cast as a non-convex optimization problem, which is iteratively solved using sequential convex programming that approximates non-convex constraints by using convex ones. The method generates trajectories that account for simple dynamics constraints and is thus independent of the vehicle's type. An extensive a posteriori vehicle-specific feasibility check is included in the algorithm. The algorithm is applied to a quadrocopter fleet. Experimental results are shown.

301 citations

##### Cited by

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TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.

Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

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01 Jan 2006

TL;DR: This coherent and comprehensive book unifies material from several sources, including robotics, control theory, artificial intelligence, and algorithms, into planning under differential constraints that arise when automating the motions of virtually any mechanical system.

Abstract: Planning algorithms are impacting technical disciplines and industries around the world, including robotics, computer-aided design, manufacturing, computer graphics, aerospace applications, drug design, and protein folding. This coherent and comprehensive book unifies material from several sources, including robotics, control theory, artificial intelligence, and algorithms. The treatment is centered on robot motion planning but integrates material on planning in discrete spaces. A major part of the book is devoted to planning under uncertainty, including decision theory, Markov decision processes, and information spaces, which are the “configuration spaces” of all sensor-based planning problems. The last part of the book delves into planning under differential constraints that arise when automating the motions of virtually any mechanical system. Developed from courses taught by the author, the book is intended for students, engineers, and researchers in robotics, artificial intelligence, and control theory as well as computer graphics, algorithms, and computational biology.

6,340 citations

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TL;DR: It is proved that one can perfectly recover most low-rank matrices from what appears to be an incomplete set of entries, and that objects other than signals and images can be perfectly reconstructed from very limited information.

Abstract: We consider a problem of considerable practical interest: the recovery of a data matrix from a sampling of its entries. Suppose that we observe m entries selected uniformly at random from a matrix M. Can we complete the matrix and recover the entries that we have not seen?
We show that one can perfectly recover most low-rank matrices from what appears to be an incomplete set of entries. We prove that if the number m of sampled entries obeys $$m\ge C\,n^{1.2}r\log n$$ for some positive numerical constant C, then with very high probability, most n×n matrices of rank r can be perfectly recovered by solving a simple convex optimization program. This program finds the matrix with minimum nuclear norm that fits the data. The condition above assumes that the rank is not too large. However, if one replaces the 1.2 exponent with 1.25, then the result holds for all values of the rank. Similar results hold for arbitrary rectangular matrices as well. Our results are connected with the recent literature on compressed sensing, and show that objects other than signals and images can be perfectly reconstructed from very limited information.

5,274 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown that if a certain restricted isometry property holds for the linear transformation defining the constraints, the minimum-rank solution can be recovered by solving a convex optimization problem, namely, the minimization of the nuclear norm over the given affine space.

Abstract: The affine rank minimization problem consists of finding a matrix of minimum rank that satisfies a given system of linear equality constraints. Such problems have appeared in the literature of a diverse set of fields including system identification and control, Euclidean embedding, and collaborative filtering. Although specific instances can often be solved with specialized algorithms, the general affine rank minimization problem is NP-hard because it contains vector cardinality minimization as a special case.
In this paper, we show that if a certain restricted isometry property holds for the linear transformation defining the constraints, the minimum-rank solution can be recovered by solving a convex optimization problem, namely, the minimization of the nuclear norm over the given affine space. We present several random ensembles of equations where the restricted isometry property holds with overwhelming probability, provided the codimension of the subspace is sufficiently large.
The techniques used in our analysis have strong parallels in the compressed sensing framework. We discuss how affine rank minimization generalizes this preexisting concept and outline a dictionary relating concepts from cardinality minimization to those of rank minimization. We also discuss several algorithmic approaches to minimizing the nuclear norm and illustrate our results with numerical examples.

3,432 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that if a certain restricted isometry property holds for the linear transformation defining the constraints, the minimum-rank solution can be recovered by solving a convex optimization problem, namely, the minimization of the nuclear norm over the given affine space.

Abstract: The affine rank minimization problem consists of finding a matrix of minimum rank that satisfies a given system of linear equality constraints. Such problems have appeared in the literature of a diverse set of fields including system identification and control, Euclidean embedding, and collaborative filtering. Although specific instances can often be solved with specialized algorithms, the general affine rank minimization problem is NP-hard because it contains vector cardinality minimization as a special case.
In this paper, we show that if a certain restricted isometry property holds for the linear transformation defining the constraints, the minimum-rank solution can be recovered by solving a convex optimization problem, namely, the minimization of the nuclear norm over the given affine space. We present several random ensembles of equations where the restricted isometry property holds with overwhelming probability, provided the codimension of the subspace is sufficiently large.
The techniques used in our analysis have strong parallels in the compressed sensing framework. We discuss how affine rank minimization generalizes this preexisting concept and outline a dictionary relating concepts from cardinality minimization to those of rank minimization. We also discuss several algorithmic approaches to minimizing the nuclear norm and illustrate our results with numerical examples.

2,742 citations