Other affiliations: Texas Instruments, Georgia Tech Research Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign ...read more
Bio: Raghupathy Sivakumar is an academic researcher from Georgia Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Wireless network & Wireless ad hoc network. The author has an hindex of 47, co-authored 201 publications receiving 8809 citations. Previous affiliations of Raghupathy Sivakumar include Texas Instruments & Georgia Tech Research Institute.
Papers published on a yearly basis
••21 Mar 1999
TL;DR: Preliminary performance evaluation shows that CEDAR is a robust and adaptive QoS routing algorithm that reacts effectively to the dynamics of the network while still approximating link-state performance for stable networks.
Abstract: CEDAR is an algorithm for QoS routing in ad hoc network environments. It has three key components: (a) the establishment and maintenance of a self-organizing routing infrastructure called the core for performing route computations, (b) the propagation of the link-state of stable high-bandwidth links in the core through increase/decrease waves, and (c) a QoS route computation algorithm that is executed at the core nodes using only locally available state. But preliminary performance evaluation shows that CEDAR is a robust and adaptive QoS routing algorithm that reacts effectively to the dynamics of the network while still approximating link-state performance for stable networks.
TL;DR: The performance evaluations show that CEDAR is a robust and adaptive QoS routing algorithm that reacts quickly and effectively to the dynamics of the network while still approximating the performance of link-state routing for stable networks.
Abstract: We present CEDAR, a core-extraction distributed ad hoc routing algorithm for quality-of-service (QoS) routing in ad hoc network environments, CEDAR has three key components: (a) the establishment and maintenance of a self-organizing routing infrastructure called the core for performing route computations; (b) the propagation of the link-state of high bandwidth and stable links in the core through increase/decrease waves; and (c) a QoS-route computation algorithm that is executed at the core nodes using only locally available state. The performance evaluations show that CEDAR is a robust and adaptive QoS routing algorithm that reacts quickly and effectively to the dynamics of the network while still approximating the performance of link-state routing for stable networks.
••22 Sep 1997
TL;DR: This work describes a self-organizing, dynamic spine structure within each lower level cluster to propagate topology changes, compute updated routes in the background, and provide backup routes in case of transient failures of the primary routes.
Abstract: We present a two-level hierarchical routing architecture for ad hoc networks. Within each lower level cluster, we describe a self-organizing, dynamic spine structure to (a) propagate topology changes, (b) compute updated routes in the background, and (c) provide backup routes in case of transient failures of the primary routes. We analyze and bound the worst case of movements between upper level clusters to show that this hierarchical architecture scales well with network size.
••01 Jun 2003
TL;DR: This paper presents a new reliable transport layer protocol for ad hoc networks called ATP (ad hoc transport protocol), and shows through ns2-based simulations that ATP outperforms default TCP as well as TCP-ELFN and ATCP.
Abstract: Existing works have approached the problem of reliable transport in ad-hoc networks by proposing mechanisms to improve TCP's performance over such networks. In this paper we show through detailed arguments and simulations that several of the design elements in TCP are fundamentally inappropriate for the unique characteristics of ad-hoc networks. Given that ad hoc networks are typically stand-alone, we approach the problem of reliable transport from the perspective that it is justifiable to develop an entirely new transport protocol that is not a variant of TCP. Towards this end, we present a new reliable transport layer protocol for ad-hoc networks called ATP (ad-hoc transport protocol). We show through ns2 based simulations that ATP outperforms both default TCP and TCP-ELFN.
••23 Sep 2002
TL;DR: This paper considers a multi-homed mobile host, and proposes an end-to-end transport layer approach called pTCP that effectively performs bandwidth aggregation on multi homed mobile hosts and shows through simulations that p TCP achieves the desired goals under a variety of network conditions.
Abstract: Due to the availability of a wide variety of wireless access technologies, a mobile host can potentially have subscriptions and access to more than one wireless network at a given time. In this paper, we consider such a multi-homed mobile host, and address the problem of achieving bandwidth aggregation by striping data across the multiple interfaces of the mobile host. We show that both link layer striping approaches and application layer techniques that stripe data across multiple TCP sockets do not achieve the optimal bandwidth aggregation due to a variety of factors specific to wireless networks. We propose an end-to-end transport layer approach called pTCP that effectively performs bandwidth aggregation on multi homed mobile hosts. We show through simulations that pTCP achieves the desired goals under a variety of network conditions.
TL;DR: The novel functionalities and current research challenges of the xG networks are explained in detail, and a brief overview of the cognitive radio technology is provided and the xg network architecture is introduced.
Abstract: Today's wireless networks are characterized by a fixed spectrum assignment policy. However, a large portion of the assigned spectrum is used sporadically and geographical variations in the utilization of assigned spectrum ranges from 15% to 85% with a high variance in time. The limited available spectrum and the inefficiency in the spectrum usage necessitate a new communication paradigm to exploit the existing wireless spectrum opportunistically. This new networking paradigm is referred to as NeXt Generation (xG) Networks as well as Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) and cognitive radio networks. The term xG networks is used throughout the paper. The novel functionalities and current research challenges of the xG networks are explained in detail. More specifically, a brief overview of the cognitive radio technology is provided and the xG network architecture is introduced. Moreover, the xG network functions such as spectrum management, spectrum mobility and spectrum sharing are explained in detail. The influence of these functions on the performance of the upper layer protocols such as routing and transport are investigated and open research issues in these areas are also outlined. Finally, the cross-layer design challenges in xG networks are discussed.
TL;DR: This survey presents a comprehensive review of the recent literature since the publication of a survey on sensor networks, and gives an overview of several new applications and then reviews the literature on various aspects of WSNs.
Abstract: A wireless sensor network (WSN) has important applications such as remote environmental monitoring and target tracking. This has been enabled by the availability, particularly in recent years, of sensors that are smaller, cheaper, and intelligent. These sensors are equipped with wireless interfaces with which they can communicate with one another to form a network. The design of a WSN depends significantly on the application, and it must consider factors such as the environment, the application's design objectives, cost, hardware, and system constraints. The goal of our survey is to present a comprehensive review of the recent literature since the publication of [I.F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, E. Cayirci, A survey on sensor networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, 2002]. Following a top-down approach, we give an overview of several new applications and then review the literature on various aspects of WSNs. We classify the problems into three different categories: (1) internal platform and underlying operating system, (2) communication protocol stack, and (3) network services, provisioning, and deployment. We review the major development in these three categories and outline new challenges.
01 Jan 2000
TL;DR: This work introduces Epidemic Routing, where random pair-wise exchanges of messages among mobile hosts ensure eventual message delivery and achieves eventual delivery of 100% of messages with reasonable aggregate resource consumption in a number of interesting scenarios.
Abstract: Mobile ad hoc routing protocols allow nodes with wireless adaptors to communicate with one another without any pre-existing network infrastructure. Existing ad hoc routing protocols, while robust to rapidly changing network topology, assume the presence of a connected path from source to destination. Given power limitations, the advent of short-range wireless networks, and the wide physical conditions over which ad hoc networks must be deployed, in some scenarios it is likely that this assumption is invalid. In this work, we develop techniques to deliver messages in the case where there is never a connected path from source to destination or when a network partition exists at the time a message is originated. To this end, we introduce Epidemic Routing, where random pair-wise exchanges of messages among mobile hosts ensure eventual message delivery. The goals of Epidemic Routing are to: i) maximize message delivery rate, ii) minimize message latency, and iii) minimize the total resources consumed in message delivery. Through an implementation in the Monarch simulator, we show that Epidemic Routing achieves eventual delivery of 100% of messages with reasonable aggregate resource consumption in a number of interesting scenarios.
TL;DR: This paper presents a detailed study on recent advances and open research issues in WMNs, followed by discussing the critical factors influencing protocol design and exploring the state-of-the-art protocols for WMNs.
Abstract: Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) consist of mesh routers and mesh clients, where mesh routers have minimal mobility and form the backbone of WMNs. They provide network access for both mesh and conventional clients. The integration of WMNs with other networks such as the Internet, cellular, IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.15, IEEE 802.16, sensor networks, etc., can be accomplished through the gateway and bridging functions in the mesh routers. Mesh clients can be either stationary or mobile, and can form a client mesh network among themselves and with mesh routers. WMNs are anticipated to resolve the limitations and to significantly improve the performance of ad hoc networks, wireless local area networks (WLANs), wireless personal area networks (WPANs), and wireless metropolitan area networks (WMANs). They are undergoing rapid progress and inspiring numerous deployments. WMNs will deliver wireless services for a large variety of applications in personal, local, campus, and metropolitan areas. Despite recent advances in wireless mesh networking, many research challenges remain in all protocol layers. This paper presents a detailed study on recent advances and open research issues in WMNs. System architectures and applications of WMNs are described, followed by discussing the critical factors influencing protocol design. Theoretical network capacity and the state-of-the-art protocols for WMNs are explored with an objective to point out a number of open research issues. Finally, testbeds, industrial practice, and current standard activities related to WMNs are highlighted.
••14 Sep 2003
TL;DR: Measurements taken from a 29-node 802.11b test-bed demonstrate the poor performance of minimum hop-count, illustrate the causes of that poor performance, and confirm that ETX improves performance.
Abstract: This paper presents the expected transmission count metric (ETX), which finds high-throughput paths on multi-hop wireless networks. ETX minimizes the expected total number of packet transmissions (including retransmissions) required to successfully deliver a packet to the ultimate destination. The ETX metric incorporates the effects of link loss ratios, asymmetry in the loss ratios between the two directions of each link, and interference among the successive links of a path. In contrast, the minimum hop-count metric chooses arbitrarily among the different paths of the same minimum length, regardless of the often large differences in throughput among those paths, and ignoring the possibility that a longer path might offer higher throughput.This paper describes the design and implementation of ETX as a metric for the DSDV and DSR routing protocols, as well as modifications to DSDV and DSR which allow them to use ETX. Measurements taken from a 29-node 802.11b test-bed demonstrate the poor performance of minimum hop-count, illustrate the causes of that poor performance, and confirm that ETX improves performance. For long paths the throughput improvement is often a factor of two or more, suggesting that ETX will become more useful as networks grow larger and paths become longer.