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Raheb Ghorbani

Bio: Raheb Ghorbani is an academic researcher from Semnan University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Placebo & Population. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 264 publications receiving 1166 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Based on the findings of the study, the topical application of lavender decreases moderate intensities of pain during the insertion of dialysis needles, and lavender oil may be an option to reduce pain by insertion of hemodialysis needles.

58 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Institutionalization of the concept of spirituality, provision of an appropriate context to deliver such care, and also implementation of interventions in order to improve spiritual care along with other nursing skills were assumed of utmost importance.
Abstract: Addressing spiritual needs is taken into account as an integral part of holistic health care and also an important component of nursing practice. The aim of present study is to evaluate attitudes toward spirituality and spiritual care among nurses and nursing students at Semnan University of Medical Sciences in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, all nurses (n = 180) working in the teaching hospitals affiliated to Semnan University of Medical Sciences as well as senior nursing students (n = 50) selected by the census method. Finally, 168 individuals meeting the inclusion criteria were evaluated as the study sample. The data collection instrument was the Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale. The mean and standard deviation scores of attitudes toward spirituality and spiritual care among nurses and nursing students were 59 ± 10.9, and the scores obtained by the majority of study population (64.3%) ranged between 32 and 62 which were at a moderate and relatively desirable level. Nurses and nursing students working in aforementioned hospitals reported positive attitudes to spirituality and spiritual care. Given the importance of spiritual care and also the moderate level of spirituality and spiritual care among nurses and nursing students in this study, institutionalization of the concept of spirituality, provision of an appropriate context to deliver such care, and also implementation of interventions in order to improve spiritual care along with other nursing skills were assumed of utmost importance.

39 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Measuring HRQoL should be considered as an essential part of the overall assessment of health status of BTM patients, which would provide valuable clues for improving the management of disease and making decisions on the treatment.
Abstract: The main purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the impact of beta-thalassemia major (BTM) on the health-related quality of life as assessed by the medical outcomes short-form-36 questionnaire (SF-36). A systematic literature search was performed on Cochrane library, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, ProQues, Medline/PubMed, Scholar Google until March 17, 2017 to obtain eligible studies. A fixed effect model was applied to summarize the scores of each domain. The radar chart was used to compare the scores of BTM patients with other health conditions. Spearman’s correlation analysis and meta-regression were used to explore the related factors. 26 studies were included in this study, which were all reliable to summarize the scores of the SF36. Pooled mean scores of the physical health domains ranged from 52.74 to 74.5, with the GH and PF domains being the lowest and the highest, respectively. Further, the pooled mean scores of the mental health domains varied between 59.6 and 71.11, with the (MH-VT) and SF domains being the maximum and the minimum, respectively. Patients with BTM had a substantially compromised HRQoL in comparison with the general population. BTM could adversely affect the HRQoL of patients. Measuring HRQoL should be considered as an essential part of the overall assessment of health status of BTM patients, which would provide valuable clues for improving the management of disease and making decisions on the treatment.

32 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study suggests that cigarette smoking might be an independent risk factor for the development of nephrolithiasis.
Abstract: Background: Nephrolithiasis is a widespread multifactorial disorder. Constitutional, environmental and genetic factors play a role in stone formation. Although important advances have been made in understanding the pathophysiology of stone formation, none of the many theories have given a satisfactory explanation of this process. Objectives: The objective of study was to evaluate the probable relationship between cigarette smoking and nephrolitiasis in adult men. Patients and Methods: A total of 102 cases diagnosed with nepholithiasis and 121 age-matched healthy controls were recruited from June 2010 to September 2011. Smoking status and resultant data was obtained from both groups. Results: Twenty seven (26.5%) of the patients with stones and eighteen (14.9%) of the control group were current cigarette smokers. Our findings showed that smoking significantly increases the risk of nepholithiasis (OR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.06-4.01, P = 0.034). There was no significant difference in the number of cigarettes smoked (P = 0.830) and years of smoking (P = 0.536) between subjects with and without stones (P = 0.536). Conclusions: This study suggests that cigarette smoking might be an independent risk factor for the development of nephrolithiasis.

30 citations


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TL;DR: The 11th edition of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine welcomes Anthony Fauci to its editorial staff, in addition to more than 85 new contributors.
Abstract: The 11th edition of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine welcomes Anthony Fauci to its editorial staff, in addition to more than 85 new contributors. While the organization of the book is similar to previous editions, major emphasis has been placed on disorders that affect multiple organ systems. Important advances in genetics, immunology, and oncology are emphasized. Many chapters of the book have been rewritten and describe major advances in internal medicine. Subjects that received only a paragraph or two of attention in previous editions are now covered in entire chapters. Among the chapters that have been extensively revised are the chapters on infections in the compromised host, on skin rashes in infections, on many of the viral infections, including cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus, on sexually transmitted diseases, on diabetes mellitus, on disorders of bone and mineral metabolism, and on lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. The major revisions in these chapters and many

6,968 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Particular conditions frequently observed in intensive care such as patients with dysphagia, frail patients, multiple trauma patients, abdominal surgery, sepsis, and obesity are discussed to guide the practitioner toward the best evidence based therapy.

1,474 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: This is a paid internship where interns work directly to assist the Director of Marketing and Communications on various tasks relating to upcoming GRA events.
Abstract: OVERVIEW The GRA Marketing Internship Program is offered to students who are interested in gaining valuable work experience through efforts in marketing, membership, sales, and events. Interns work directly to assist the Director of Marketing and Communications on various tasks relating to upcoming GRA events. During this internship, students will work a minimum of 10 hours a week and a maximum of 20 hours a week. Students are encouraged to earn credit for their internship, however this is a paid internship. Students interested in obtaining credit for their internship must consult their academic advisor or the intern coordinator at their academic unit.

1,309 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The efficacy, effect of dose, method of administration and safety of sucrose for relieving procedural pain in neonates as assessed by validated composite pain scores, physiological pain indicators, and behavioural pain indicators are determined.
Abstract: Background Administration of oral sucrose with and without non-nutritive sucking is the most frequently studied non-pharmacological intervention for procedural pain relief in neonates. Objectives To determine the efficacy, effect of dose, method of administration and safety of sucrose for relieving procedural pain in neonates as assessed by validated composite pain scores, physiological pain indicators (heart rate, respiratory rate, saturation of peripheral oxygen in the blood, transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide (gas exchange measured across the skin - TcpO2, TcpCO2), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), electroencephalogram (EEG), or behavioural pain indicators (cry duration, proportion of time crying, proportion of time facial actions (e.g. grimace) are present), or a combination of these and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Search methods We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal. We performed electronic and manual literature searches in February 2016 for published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2016), MEDLINE (1950 to 2016), EMBASE (1980 to 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 2016). We did not impose language restrictions. Selection criteria RCTs in which term or preterm neonates (postnatal age maximum of 28 days after reaching 40 weeks' postmenstrual age), or both, received sucrose for procedural pain. Control interventions included no treatment, water, glucose, breast milk, breastfeeding, local anaesthetic, pacifier, positioning/containing or acupuncture. Data collection and analysis Our main outcome measures were composite pain scores (including a combination of behavioural, physiological and contextual indicators). Secondary outcomes included separate physiological and behavioural pain indicators. We reported a mean difference (MD) or weighted MD (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the fixed-effect model for continuous outcome measures. For categorical data we used risk ratio (RR) and risk difference. We assessed heterogeneity by the I2 test. We assessed the risk of bias of included trials using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, and assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE system. Main results Seventy-four studies enrolling 7049 infants were included. Results from only a few studies could be combined in meta-analyses and for most analyses the GRADE assessments indicated low- or moderate-quality evidence. There was high-quality evidence for the beneficial effect of sucrose (24%) with non-nutritive sucking (pacifier dipped in sucrose) or 0.5 mL of sucrose orally in preterm and term infants: Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) 30 s after heel lance WMD -1.70 (95% CI -2.13 to -1.26; I2 = 0% (no heterogeneity); 3 studies, n = 278); PIPP 60 s after heel lance WMD -2.14 (95% CI -3.34 to -0.94; I2 = 0% (no heterogeneity; 2 studies, n = 164). There was high-quality evidence for the use of 2 mL 24% sucrose prior to venipuncture: PIPP during venipuncture WMD -2.79 (95% CI -3.76 to -1.83; I2 = 0% (no heterogeneity; 2 groups in 1 study, n = 213); and intramuscular injections: PIPP during intramuscular injection WMD -1.05 (95% CI -1.98 to -0.12; I2 = 0% (2 groups in 1 study, n = 232). Evidence from studies that could not be included in RevMan-analyses supported these findings. Reported adverse effects were minor and similar in the sucrose and control groups. Sucrose is not effective in reducing pain from circumcision. The effectiveness of sucrose for reducing pain/stress from other interventions such as arterial puncture, subcutaneous injection, insertion of nasogastric or orogastric tubes, bladder catherization, eye examinations and echocardiography examinations are inconclusive. Most trials indicated some benefit of sucrose use but that the evidence for other painful procedures is of lower quality as it is based on few studies of small sample sizes. The effects of sucrose on long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes are unknown. Authors' conclusions Sucrose is effective for reducing procedural pain from single events such as heel lance, venipuncture and intramuscular injection in both preterm and term infants. No serious side effects or harms have been documented with this intervention. We could not identify an optimal dose due to inconsistency in effective sucrose dosage among studies. Further investigation of repeated administration of sucrose in neonates is needed. There is some moderate-quality evidence that sucrose in combination with other non-pharmacological interventions such as non-nutritive sucking is more effective than sucrose alone, but more research of this and sucrose in combination with pharmacological interventions is needed. Sucrose use in extremely preterm, unstable, ventilated (or a combination of these) neonates needs to be addressed. Additional research is needed to determine the minimally effective dose of sucrose during a single painful procedure and the effect of repeated sucrose administration on immediate (pain intensity) and long-term (neurodevelopmental) outcomes.

752 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The 2020 update to the KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline for Nutrition in CKD provides comprehensive up-to-date information on the understanding and care of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in terms of their metabolic and nutritional milieu for the practicing clinician and allied health care workers.

670 citations