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Rahmita Wirza O. K. Rahmat

Bio: Rahmita Wirza O. K. Rahmat is an academic researcher from Universiti Putra Malaysia. The author has contributed to research in topics: Facial recognition system & Feature extraction. The author has an hindex of 13, co-authored 105 publications receiving 581 citations. Previous affiliations of Rahmita Wirza O. K. Rahmat include Information Technology University & International Islamic University, Islamabad.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results of the experiment show that the proposed threshold is more robust in terms of dealing with the complex background and light conditions than others.
Abstract: Skin detection is used in many applications, such as face recognition, hand tracking, and human-computer interaction. There are many skin color detection algorithms that are used to extract human skin color regions that are based on the thresholding technique since it is simple and fast for computation. The efficiency of each color space depends on its robustness to the change in lighting and the ability to distinguish skin color pixels in images that have a complex background. For more accurate skin detection, we are proposing a new threshold based on RGB and YUV color spaces. The proposed approach starts by converting the RGB color space to the YUV color model. Then it separates the Y channel, which represents the intensity of the color model from the U and V channels to eliminate the effects of luminance. After that the threshold values are selected based on the testing of the boundary of skin colors with the help of the color histogram. Finally, the threshold was applied to the input image to extract skin parts. The detected skin regions were quantitatively compared to the actual skin parts in the input images to measure the accuracy and to compare the results of our threshold to the results of other’s thresholds to prove the efficiency of our approach. The results of the experiment show that the proposed threshold is more robust in terms of dealing with the complex background and light conditions than others.

79 citations

Proceedings Article
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: Results show that various factors such as the musical features extracted, classifiers employed, the size of the dataset, excerpt length, excerpt location and test set parameters improve classification results.
Abstract: The number of studies investigating automated genre classification is growing following the increasing amounts of digital audio data available. The underlying techniques to perform automated genre classification in general include feature extraction and classification. In this study, MARSYAS was used to extract audio features and the suite of tools available in WEKA was used for the classification. This study investigates the factors affecting automated genre classification. As for the dataset, most studies in this area work with western genres and traditional Malay music is incorporated in this study. Eight genres were introduced; Dikir Barat, Etnik Sabah, Inang, Joget, Keroncong, Tumbuk Kalang, Wayang Kulit, and Zapin. A total of 417 tracks from various Audio Compact Discs were collected and used as the dataset. Results show that various factors such as the musical features extracted, classifiers employed, the size of the dataset, excerpt length, excerpt location and test set parameters improve classification results.

43 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
26 Sep 2008
TL;DR: An up-to-date review of major human facia recognition research is provided and the most prominent feature extraction and the techniques are given.
Abstract: Over the last decade facial feature extraction has been actively researched for face recognition. This paper provides an up-to-date review of major human facia recognition research. Earlier sections we presented an overview of face recognition and its applications. In later sections, a literature review of the most recent face recognition technique is presented. The most prominent feature extraction and the techniques are also given. Finally, we summarized all research results discussed.

39 citations

01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: Experimental results show that the proposed improved face detection method efficiently decreased false positive rate and subsequently increased accuracy of the face detection system especially in complex background images.
Abstract: Human face detection is preliminary required step of face recognition systems as well as a very important task in many applications, such as security access control systems, video surveillance, human computer interface and image database management. This paper intends to combine Viola and Jones face detection method with a color-based method to propose an improved face detection method. Experimental results show that our method efficiently decreased false positive rate and subsequently increased accuracy of the face detection system especially in complex background images. Also our proposed method considerably increased face detection speed.

36 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The effectiveness of this technique has been improved using the Improved Sub-Block technique by taking into consideration the total horizontal and vertical distances of a region at each location where it overlaps.
Abstract: A novel technique for Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) that employs both the color and spatial information of images is proposed. A maximum of three dominant color regions in an image together with its respective coordinates of the Minimum-Bounding Rectangle (MBR) are first extracted. Next, the Sub-Block technique is then used to determine the location of the dominant regions by comparing the coordinates of the region’s MBR with the four corners of the center of the location map. The cell number that is maximally covered by the region is supposedly to be assigned as the location index. However, the Sub-Block technique is not reliable because in most cases, the location index assigned is not the cell number that is maximally covered by the region and sometimes a region does not overlap with the cell number assigned at all. The effectiveness of this technique has been improved using the Improved Sub-Block technique by taking into consideration the total horizontal and vertical distances of a region at each location where it overlaps. The color-spatial technique is accessed on a Query-byExample CBIR system consisting of 900 images. From the experiments it is shown that retrieval effectiveness has been significantly improved by 85.86%.

25 citations


Cited by
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Journal Article
TL;DR: 1. Place animal in induction chamber and anesthetize the mouse and ensure sedation, move it to a nose cone for hair removal using cream and reduce anesthesia to maintain proper heart rate.
Abstract: 1. Place animal in induction chamber and anesthetize the mouse and ensure sedation. 2. Once the animal is sedated, move it to a nose cone for hair removal using cream. Only apply cream to the area of the chest that will be utilized for imaging. Once the hair is removed, wipe area with wet gauze to ensure all hair is removed. 3. Move the animal to the imaging platform and tape its paws to the ECG lead plates and insert rectal probe. Body temperature should be maintained at 36-37°C. During imaging, reduce anesthesia to maintain proper heart rate. If the animal shows signs of being awake, use a higher concentration of anesthetic.

1,557 citations

Book
01 Jan 1975
TL;DR: The major change in the second edition of this book is the addition of a new chapter on probabilistic retrieval, which I think is one of the most interesting and active areas of research in information retrieval.
Abstract: The major change in the second edition of this book is the addition of a new chapter on probabilistic retrieval. This chapter has been included because I think this is one of the most interesting and active areas of research in information retrieval. There are still many problems to be solved so I hope that this particular chapter will be of some help to those who want to advance the state of knowledge in this area. All the other chapters have been updated by including some of the more recent work on the topics covered. In preparing this new edition I have benefited from discussions with Bruce Croft, The material of this book is aimed at advanced undergraduate information (or computer) science students, postgraduate library science students, and research workers in the field of IR. Some of the chapters, particularly Chapter 6 * , make simple use of a little advanced mathematics. However, the necessary mathematical tools can be easily mastered from numerous mathematical texts that now exist and, in any case, references have been given where the mathematics occur. I had to face the problem of balancing clarity of exposition with density of references. I was tempted to give large numbers of references but was afraid they would have destroyed the continuity of the text. I have tried to steer a middle course and not compete with the Annual Review of Information Science and Technology. Normally one is encouraged to cite only works that have been published in some readily accessible form, such as a book or periodical. Unfortunately, much of the interesting work in IR is contained in technical reports and Ph.D. theses. For example, most the work done on the SMART system at Cornell is available only in reports. Luckily many of these are now available through the National Technical Information Service (U.S.) and University Microfilms (U.K.). I have not avoided using these sources although if the same material is accessible more readily in some other form I have given it preference. I should like to acknowledge my considerable debt to many people and institutions that have helped me. Let me say first that they are responsible for many of the ideas in this book but that only I wish to be held responsible. My greatest debt is to Karen Sparck Jones who taught me to research information retrieval as an experimental science. Nick Jardine and Robin …

822 citations

Book
Nicola Orio1
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: An overview of the techniques for music processing, which are commonly exploited in many approaches, is presented and a description of the initial efforts and evaluation campaigns for MIR is provided.
Abstract: The increasing availability of music in digital format needs to be matched by the development of tools for music accessing, filtering, classification, and retrieval. The research area of Music Information Retrieval (MIR) covers many of these aspects. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of this vast and new field. A number of issues, which are peculiar to the music language, are described--including forms, formats, and dimensions of music--together with the typologies of users and their information needs. To fulfil these needs a number of approaches are discussed, from direct search to information filtering and clustering of music documents. An overview of the techniques for music processing, which are commonly exploited in many approaches, is also presented. Evaluation and comparisons of the approaches on a common benchmark are other important issues. To this end, a description of the initial efforts and evaluation campaigns for MIR is provided.

192 citations