Author

# Rainee N. Simons

Bio: Rainee N. Simons is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Power dividers and directional couplers & Coplanar waveguide. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 1162 citations.

##### Papers

More filters

•

01 Jan 2001

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the characteristics of conventional, Micromachined, and Superconducting Coplanar Waveguides, as well as their transitions in directional couplers, hybrid, and magic-Ts.

Abstract: Preface Introduction Conventional Coplanar Waveguide Conductor-Backed Coplanar Waveguide Coplanar Waveguide with Finite-Width Ground Planes Coplanar Waveguide Suspended Inside A Conducting Enclosure Coplanar Striplines Microshield Lines and Coupled Coplanar Waveguide Attenuation Characteristics of Conventional, Micromachined, and Superconducting Coplanar Waveguides Coplanar Waveguide Discontinuities and Circuit Elements Coplanar Waveguide Transitions Directional Couplers, Hybrids, and Magic-Ts Coplanar Waveguide Applications References Index

1,225 citations

##### Cited by

More filters

••

Canadian Institute for Advanced Research

^{1}, University of Sydney^{2}, Yale University^{3}, ETH Zurich^{4}TL;DR: The field of circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) as discussed by the authors was initiated by Josephson-junction-based superconducting circuits and has become an independent and thriving field of research in its own right.

Abstract: Quantum-mechanical effects at the macroscopic level were first explored in Josephson-junction-based superconducting circuits in the 1980s. In recent decades, the emergence of quantum information science has intensified research toward using these circuits as qubits in quantum information processors. The realization that superconducting qubits can be made to strongly and controllably interact with microwave photons, the quantized electromagnetic fields stored in superconducting circuits, led to the creation of the field of circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED), the topic of this review. While atomic cavity QED inspired many of the early developments of circuit QED, the latter has now become an independent and thriving field of research in its own right. Circuit QED allows the study and control of light-matter interaction at the quantum level in unprecedented detail. It also plays an essential role in all current approaches to gate-based digital quantum information processing with superconducting circuits. In addition, circuit QED provides a framework for the study of hybrid quantum systems, such as quantum dots, magnons, Rydberg atoms, surface acoustic waves, and mechanical systems interacting with microwave photons. Here the coherent coupling of superconducting qubits to microwave photons in high-quality oscillators focusing on the physics of the Jaynes-Cummings model, its dispersive limit, and the different regimes of light-matter interaction in this system are reviewed. Also discussed is coupling of superconducting circuits to their environment, which is necessary for coherent control and measurements in circuit QED, but which also invariably leads to decoherence. Dispersive qubit readout, a central ingredient in almost all circuit QED experiments, is also described. Following an introduction to these fundamental concepts that are at the heart of circuit QED, important use cases of these ideas in quantum information processing and in quantum optics are discussed. Circuit QED realizes a broad set of concepts that open up new possibilities for the study of quantum physics at the macro scale with superconducting circuits and applications to quantum information science in the widest sense.

773 citations

••

Hewlett-Packard

^{1}TL;DR: Sub-nanosecond switching of a metal-oxide-metal memristor utilizing a broadband 20 GHz experimental setup developed to observe fast switching dynamics is reported.

Abstract: We report sub-nanosecond switching of a metal?oxide?metal memristor utilizing a broadband 20?GHz experimental setup developed to observe fast switching dynamics. Set and reset operations were successfully performed in the tantalum oxide memristor using pulses with durations of 105 and 120?ps, respectively. Reproducibility of the sub-nanosecond switching was also confirmed as the device switched over consecutive cycles.

632 citations

••

20 Sep 2004TL;DR: The scientific opportunities, the basic physics of these devices, the techniques for radiation coupling, and the recent progress in direct detectors are described, as well as the work on tunnel junction (superconductor-insulator-super Conductor) and hot-electron mixers.

Abstract: Superconducting detectors will play an increasingly significant role in astrophysics, especially at millimeter through far-IR wavelengths, where the scientific opportunities include key problems in astronomy and cosmology. Superconducting detectors offer many benefits: outstanding sensitivity, lithographic fabrication, and large array sizes, especially through the recent development of multiplexing techniques. This paper describes the scientific opportunities, the basic physics of these devices, the techniques for radiation coupling, and reviews the recent progress in direct detectors, such as transition-edge bolometers, and the work on tunnel junction (superconductor-insulator-superconductor) and hot-electron mixers.

307 citations

••

TL;DR: A sensor based on a coplanar waveguide structure was designed to perform non-destructive tests for material characterization in which the measurement can be done only on one side of the sample.

Abstract: A sensor based on a coplanar waveguide structure was designed to perform non-destructive tests for material characterization in which the measurement can be done only on one side of the sample. The measurements were compared with the impedance of a capacitor filled with the same material. The permittivity and insertion loss of the sensor showed valuable information about the setting process of a mortar slab during the first 28 days of the hardening process, and a good correlation between both measurements was obtained, so the proposed setup can be useful for structural surveillance and moisture detection in civil structures.

289 citations

••

01 Jan 2008

TL;DR: In this article, the authors explored the properties of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID) and their properties of excess frequency noise, including power, temperature, material, and geometry dependence.

Abstract: Over the past decade, low temperature detectors have brought astronomers revolutionary new observational capabilities and led to many great discoveries. Although a single low temperature detector has very impressive sensitivity, a large detector array would be much more powerful and are highly demanded for the study of more difficult and fundamental problems in astronomy. However, current detector technologies, such as transition edge sensors and superconducting tunnel junction detectors, are difficult to integrate into a large array. The microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID)is a promising new detector technology invented at Caltech and JPL which provides both high sensitivity and an easy solution to the detector integration. It senses the change in the surface impedance of a superconductor as incoming photons break Cooper pairs, by using high-Q superconducting microwave resonators capacitively coupled to a common feedline. This architecture allows thousands of detectors to be easily integrated through passive frequency domain multiplexing. In this thesis, we explore the rich and interesting physics behind these superconducting microwave resonators. The first part of the thesis discusses the surface impedance of a superconductor, the kinetic inductance of a superconducting coplanar waveguide, and the circuit response of a resonator. These topics are related with the responsivity of MKIDs. The second part presents the study of the excess frequency noise that is universally observed in these resonators. The properties of the excess noise, including power, temperature, material, and geometry dependence, have been quantified. The noise source has been identified to be the two-level systems in the dielectric material on the surface of the resonator. A semi-empirical noise model has been developed to explain the power and geometry dependence of the noise, which is useful to predict the noise for a specified resonator geometry. The detailed physical noise mechanism, however, is still not clear. With the theoretical results of the responsivity and the semi-empirical noise model established in this thesis, a prediction of the detector sensitivity (noise equivalent power) and an optimization of the detector design are now possible.

245 citations