Rajashekhar C. Biradar
Bio: Rajashekhar C. Biradar is an academic researcher from Reva Institute of Technology and Management. The author has contributed to research in topics: Network packet & Wireless sensor network. The author has an hindex of 18, co-authored 102 publications receiving 2424 citations.
••01 Dec 2012
TL;DR: A survey of state-of-the-art routing techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and compares the routing protocols against parameters such as power consumption, scalability, mobility, optimal routing and data aggregation.
Abstract: This paper presents a survey of state-of-the-art routing techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Compared with traditional wireless networks, WSNs are characterized with denser levels of node deployment, higher unreliability of sensor nodes and severe power, computation and memory constraints. Various design challenges such as energy efficiency, data delivery models, quality of service, overheads etc., for routing protocols in WSNs are highlighted. We addressed most of the proposed routing methods along with scheme designs, benefits and result analysis wherever possible. The routing protocols discussed are classified into seven categories such as Data centric routing, Hierarchical routing, Location based routing, Negotiation based routing, Multipath based routing, Quality of Service (QoS) routing and Mobility based routing. This paper also compares the routing protocols against parameters such as power consumption, scalability, mobility, optimal routing and data aggregation. The paper concludes with possible open research issues in WSNs.
TL;DR: This work provides an overview of existing multicast routing mechanisms based on routing categories that helps in multimedia communication over MANETs and point to directions for future research and development.
Abstract: Frequent interactions among the group members of distributed wireless network environment may be facilitated with the help of Mobile Ad Hoc NETworks (MANETs). Some of the group-oriented applications include disaster management, battlefields, audio/video conferencing, e-commerce, e-education, etc. Group communication demands dynamic construction of efficient and reliable multicast routes under user mobility and varying channel conditions. Multicast routing mechanisms in MANETs have been consistently improved by researchers considering various performance measures such as energy efficient route establishment, packet delivery ratio, quicker and faster proactive route recovery, network life time, reliability, Quality of Service (QoS) based on bandwidth, delays, jitters, and security. The paper focuses on most recent reliable and QoS based multicast routing mechanisms that helps in multimedia communication over MANETs. The mechanisms are considered under different topological routing categories such as mesh, tree, zone and hybrid. We provide an overview of existing multicast routing mechanisms based on routing categories and point to directions for future research and development.
TL;DR: In this article, a novel miniaturized five band metamaterial inspired slot antenna is reported, which consists of a ring monopole and metamural Rectangular Complementary Split Ring Resonator (RCSRR) as the radiating part, two L and one T-shaped slot as the ground plane, respectively.
Abstract: A novel miniaturized five band metamaterial inspired slot antenna is reported. The proposed design consists of a ring monopole and metamaterial Rectangular Complementary Split Ring Resonator (RCSRR) as the radiating part, two L and one T–shaped slot as the ground plane, respectively. Miniaturization in the proposed design is accomplished by metamaterial RCSRR, and also, it helps the antenna to operate at 2.9 and 5.2 GHz frequency bands. The aforementioned miniaturization process leads to about 46.8% reduction in volume of the proposed design, as compared to the conventional antenna. The pass band characteristics of the metamaterial RCSRR through waveguide medium are discussed in detail. In order to enhance the operating abilities of the miniaturized antenna, slots are etched out in the ground plane, thereby making the miniaturized antenna further operate at 2.4, 5.6 and 8.8 GHz, respectively. The proposed design has an active patch area of only , with dB bandwidth of about 4.16% (2.35–2.45 GHz), 5.71% (2.63–2.76 GHz), 10.25% (4.44–4.92 GHz), 6.25% (5.42–5.77 GHz) and 2.39% (8.68–8.89 GHz) in simulation, and about 6.86% (2.25–2.41 GHz), 5.01% (2.55–2.7 GHz), 9.16% (4.58–5.02 GHz), 5.38% (5.79–6.11 GHz) and 5.42% (8.44–8.91 GHz) in measurement. The antenna has good impedance matching, acceptable gain and stable radiation characteristics across the operational bandwidths.
TL;DR: In this article, a novel four band frequency reconfigurable antenna for 1.6, 2.5, 5.8, and 9.8 GHz frequency bands is presented, which has a compact size of 0.18 λ 0 × 0.
Abstract: This research presents a novel four band frequency reconfigurable antenna for 1.6 (Global Navigation Satellite system (GNSS)), 2.5 (Lower Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX)), 5.8 (Wireless local area network (WLAN)) and 9.8 GHz (X-band) frequency bands. The antenna has a compact size of 0 . 18 λ 0 × 0.18 λ 0 × 0.0096 λ 0 at lower resonance of 1.8 GHz and is printed on FR4 material with height (h) = 1.6 mm, dielectric constant ( ( e r ) = 4.4 and loss tangent ( δ ) = 0.02. Multiband phenomenon in the antenna is achieved by etching trapezoidal slot in the radiating monopole and rectangular slots in the ground plane. Frequency reconfiguration in the proposed structure is achieved by placing PIN diode switch between rectangular slot placed in the ground plane. During OFF state, the antenna exhibit quad band with S11
TL;DR: This paper proposes a novel idea of an Active node based Fault Tolerance using Battery power and Interference model (AFTBI) in WSN to identify the faulty nodes using battery power model and interference model and found that AFTBI outperforms compared to the results of FDWSN.
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is deployed to monitor physical conditions in various places such as geographical regions, agriculture lands, office buildings, industrial plants and battlefields. WSNs are prone to different types of failures due to various environmental hazards like interference and internal failures (such as battery failure, processor failure, transceiver failure, etc). In such a situation, the sensed data cannot be transmitted correctly to the data center and the very purpose of deploying WSNs is not effective. Since it is difficult to monitor the network continuously through a manual operator, the nodes in WSN need to be capable of overcoming the failures and transmit the sensed data in proper order to the data center. Sensor network should be designed such that it should be able to identify the faulty nodes, try to rectify the fault and be able to transmit the sensed data to data center under faulty condition of a network and thereby make the network fault-free and thus enhance the fault tolerant capability. In this paper, we propose a novel idea of an Active node based Fault Tolerance using Battery power and Interference model (AFTBI) in WSN to identify the faulty nodes using battery power model and interference model. Fault tolerance against low battery power is designed through hand-off mechanism where in the faulty node selects the neighboring node having highest power and transfers all the services that are to be performed by the faulty node to the selected neighboring node. Fault tolerance against interference is provided by dynamic power level adjustment mechanism by allocating the time slot to all the neighboring nodes. If a particular node wishes to transmit the sensed data, it enters active status and transmits the packet with maximum power; otherwise it enters into sleep status having minimum power that is sufficient to receive hello messages and to maintain the connectivity. The performance evaluation is tested through simulation for packet delivery ratio, control overhead, memory overhead and fault recovery delay. We compared our results with Fault Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks (FDWSNs) for various performance measures and found that AFTBI outperforms compared to the results of FDWSN.
TL;DR: This paper offers a survey of the concept of Wireless Body Area Networks, focusing on some applications with special interest in patient monitoring and the communication in a WBAN and its positioning between the different technologies.
Abstract: The increasing use of wireless networks and the constant miniaturization of electrical devices has empowered the development of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). In these networks various sensors are attached on clothing or on the body or even implanted under the skin. The wireless nature of the network and the wide variety of sensors offer numerous new, practical and innovative applications to improve health care and the Quality of Life. The sensors of a WBAN measure for example the heartbeat, the body temperature or record a prolonged electrocardiogram. Using a WBAN, the patient experiences a greater physical mobility and is no longer compelled to stay in the hospital. This paper offers a survey of the concept of Wireless Body Area Networks. First, we focus on some applications with special interest in patient monitoring. Then the communication in a WBAN and its positioning between the different technologies is discussed. An overview of the current research on the physical layer, existing MAC and network protocols is given. Further, cross layer and quality of service is discussed. As WBANs are placed on the human body and often transport private data, security is also considered. An overview of current and past projects is given. Finally, the open research issues and challenges are pointed out.
TL;DR: The classification initially proposed by Al-Karaki, is expanded, in order to enhance all the proposed papers since 2004 and to better describe which issues/operations in each protocol illustrate/enhance the energy-efficiency issues.
Abstract: The distributed nature and dynamic topology of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) introduces very special requirements in routing protocols that should be met. The most important feature of a routing protocol, in order to be efficient for WSNs, is the energy consumption and the extension of the network's lifetime. During the recent years, many energy efficient routing protocols have been proposed for WSNs. In this paper, energy efficient routing protocols are classified into four main schemes: Network Structure, Communication Model, Topology Based and Reliable Routing. The routing protocols belonging to the first category can be further classified as flat or hierarchical. The routing protocols belonging to the second category can be further classified as Query-based or Coherent and non-coherent-based or Negotiation-based. The routing protocols belonging to the third category can be further classified as Location-based or Mobile Agent-based. The routing protocols belonging to the fourth category can be further classified as QoS-based or Multipath-based. Then, an analytical survey on energy efficient routing protocols for WSNs is provided. In this paper, the classification initially proposed by Al-Karaki, is expanded, in order to enhance all the proposed papers since 2004 and to better describe which issues/operations in each protocol illustrate/enhance the energy-efficiency issues.
TL;DR: This survey gives an overview of wireless sensor networks and their application domains including the challenges that should be addressed in order to push the technology further and identifies several open research issues that need to be investigated in future.
Abstract: Wireless sensor network (WSN) has emerged as one of the most promising technologies for the future. This has been enabled by advances in technology and availability of small, inexpensive, and smart sensors resulting in cost effective and easily deployable WSNs. However, researchers must address a variety of challenges to facilitate the widespread deployment of WSN technology in real-world domains. In this survey, we give an overview of wireless sensor networks and their application domains including the challenges that should be addressed in order to push the technology further. Then we review the recent technologies and testbeds for WSNs. Finally, we identify several open research issues that need to be investigated in future. Our survey is different from existing surveys in that we focus on recent developments in wireless sensor network technologies. We review the leading research projects, standards and technologies, and platforms. Moreover, we highlight a recent phenomenon in WSN research that is to explore synergy between sensor networks and other technologies and explain how this can help sensor networks achieve their full potential. This paper intends to help new researchers entering the domain of WSNs by providing a comprehensive survey on recent developments.
TL;DR: The state-of-the-art communication technologies and smart-based applications used within the context of smart cities are described and a future business model of big data for smart cities is proposed, and the business and technological research challenges are identified.
Abstract: We provide a vision of big data analytics to support smart cities.We proposed future business model with the aim of managing big data for smart city.We identify and discuss business and technological research challenges.We provide a description of existing communication technologies used in smart cities. The expansion of big data and the evolution of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies have played an important role in the feasibility of smart city initiatives. Big data offer the potential for cities to obtain valuable insights from a large amount of data collected through various sources, and the IoT allows the integration of sensors, radio-frequency identification, and Bluetooth in the real-world environment using highly networked services. The combination of the IoT and big data is an unexplored research area that has brought new and interesting challenges for achieving the goal of future smart cities. These new challenges focus primarily on problems related to business and technology that enable cities to actualize the vision, principles, and requirements of the applications of smart cities by realizing the main smart environment characteristics. In this paper, we describe the state-of-the-art communication technologies and smart-based applications used within the context of smart cities. The visions of big data analytics to support smart cities are discussed by focusing on how big data can fundamentally change urban populations at different levels. Moreover, a future business model of big data for smart cities is proposed, and the business and technological research challenges are identified. This study can serve as a benchmark for researchers and industries for the future progress and development of smart cities in the context of big data.
TL;DR: A comprehensive and fine grained survey on clustering routing protocols proposed in the literature for WSNs, and a novel taxonomy of WSN clustering routed methods based on complete and detailed clustering attributes are presented.
Abstract: The past few years have witnessed increased interest in the potential use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a wide range of applications and it has become a hot research area. Based on network structure, routing protocols in WSNs can be divided into two categories: flat routing and hierarchical or clustering routing. Owing to a variety of advantages, clustering is becoming an active branch of routing technology in WSNs. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and fine grained survey on clustering routing protocols proposed in the literature for WSNs. We outline the advantages and objectives of clustering for WSNs, and develop a novel taxonomy of WSN clustering routing methods based on complete and detailed clustering attributes. In particular, we systematically analyze a few prominent WSN clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to our taxonomy and several significant metrics. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with some future directions.