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Rajeev Ranjan

Bio: Rajeev Ranjan is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Science. The author has contributed to research in topics: Ferroelectricity & Dielectric. The author has an hindex of 39, co-authored 260 publications receiving 4862 citations. Previous affiliations of Rajeev Ranjan include University of Agriculture, Faisalabad & National Research Council.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the dielectric properties of (1− x )Na 0.5 Bi 0.6 -BaTiO 3 in the composition range 0.00 to 0.10.

197 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: With the introduction of superior quality membranes as well as newer technology, the major limitation of membranes, fouling or blockage has been overcome to a greater extent.
Abstract: Membrane technology has revolutionized the dairy sector. Different types of membranes are used in the industry for various purposes like extending the shelf life of milk without exposure to heat treatment, standardization of the major components of milk for tailoring new products as well increasing yield and quality of the dairy products, and concentrating, fractionation and purification of milk components especially valuable milk proteins in their natural state. In the cheese industry, membranes increase the yield and quality of cheese and control the whey volume, by concentrating the cheese milk. With the advancement of newer technology

183 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a comparative analysis of local and global structures on poled and unpoled NBT specimens using electron, x-ray, and neutron diffraction in conjunction with first-principles calculation, dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric measurements is presented.
Abstract: Na${}_{0.5}$Bi${}_{0.5}$TiO${}_{3}$ (NBT) and its derivatives have prompted a great surge in interest owing to their potential as lead-free piezoelectrics. In spite of five decades since its discovery, there is still a lack of clarity on crucial issues such as the origin of significant dielectric relaxation at room temperature, structural factors influencing its depoling, and the status of the recently proposed monoclinic ($Cc$) structure vis-\`a-vis the nanosized structural heterogeneities. In this work, these issues are resolved by comparative analysis of local and global structures on poled and unpoled NBT specimens using electron, x-ray, and neutron diffraction in conjunction with first-principles calculation, dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric measurements. The reported global monoclinic ($Cc$) distortion is shown not to correspond to the thermodynamic equilibrium state at room temperature. The global monocliniclike appearance rather owes its origin to the presence of local structural and strain heterogeneities. Poling removes the structural inhomogeneities and establishes a long-range rhombohedral distortion. In the process the system gets irreversibly transformed from a nonergodic relaxor to a normal ferroelectric state. The thermal depoling is shown to be associated with the onset of incompatible in-phase tilted octahedral regions in the field-stabilized long range rhombohedral distortion.

183 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the structure property correlation in lead-free piezoelectric has been systematically investigated in detail as a function of composition ($0lx\ensuremath{\le}0.11$), temperature, electric field, and mechanical impact by Raman scattering, ferroelectric, and x-ray, and neutron powder diffraction methods.
Abstract: The structure-property correlation in the lead-free piezoelectric ($1\ensuremath{-}x$)(Na${}_{0.5}$Bi${}_{0.5}$)TiO${}_{3}$-($x$)BaTiO${}_{3}$ has been systematically investigated in detail as a function of composition ($0lx\ensuremath{\le}0.11$), temperature, electric field, and mechanical impact by Raman scattering, ferroelectric, piezoelectric measurement, x-ray, and neutron powder diffraction methods. Although x-ray diffraction study revealed three distinct composition ranges characterizing different structural features in the equilibrium state at room temperature: (i) monoclinic ($Cc$)+rhombohedral ($R$3$c$) for the precritical compositions, $0\ensuremath{\le}x\ensuremath{\le}0.05$, (ii) cubiclike for $0.06\ensuremath{\le}x\ensuremath{\le}0.0675$, and (iii) morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) like for $0.07\ensuremath{\le}xl0.10$, Raman and neutron powder diffraction studies revealed identical symmetry for the cubiclike and the MPB compositions. The cubiclike structure undergoes irreversible phase separation by electric poling as well as by pure mechanical impact. This cubiclike phase exhibits relaxor ferroelectricity in its equilibrium state. The short coherence length (\ensuremath{\sim}50 \AA{}) of the out-of-phase octahedral tilts does not allow the normal ferroelectric state to develop below the dipolar freezing temperature, forcing the system to remain in a dipolar glass state at room temperature. Electric poling helps the dipolar glass state to transform to a normal ferroelectric state with a concomitant enhancement in the correlation length of the out-of-phase octahedral tilt.

167 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A pseudo-ternary polycrystalline ferroelectric with spontaneous lattice strain has 1.3% electrostrain, which may enable cheaper piezoelectrics, and may be useful to develop alternatives to costly single-crystal actuators.
Abstract: Piezoelectric actuators transform electrical energy into mechanical energy, and because of their compactness, quick response time and accurate displacement, they are sought after in many applications. Polycrystalline piezoelectric ceramics are technologically more appealing than single crystals due to their simpler and less expensive processing, but have yet to display electrostrain values that exceed 1%. Here we report a material design strategy wherein the efficient switching of ferroelectric–ferroelastic domains by an electric field is exploited to achieve a high electrostrain value of 1.3% in a pseudo-ternary ferroelectric alloy system, BiFeO3–PbTiO3–LaFeO3. Detailed structural investigations reveal that this electrostrain is associated with a combination of several factors: a large spontaneous lattice strain of the piezoelectric phase, domain miniaturization, a low-symmetry ferroelectric phase and a very large reverse switching of the non-180° domains. This insight for the design of a new class of polycrystalline piezoceramics with high electrostrains may be useful to develop alternatives to costly single-crystal actuators.

160 citations


Cited by
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01 Apr 1988-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) is presented.
Abstract: Deposits of clastic carbonate-dominated (calciclastic) sedimentary slope systems in the rock record have been identified mostly as linearly-consistent carbonate apron deposits, even though most ancient clastic carbonate slope deposits fit the submarine fan systems better. Calciclastic submarine fans are consequently rarely described and are poorly understood. Subsequently, very little is known especially in mud-dominated calciclastic submarine fan systems. Presented in this study are a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) that reveals a >250 m thick calciturbidite complex deposited in a calciclastic submarine fan setting. Seven facies are recognised from core and thin section characterisation and are grouped into three carbonate turbidite sequences. They include: 1) Calciturbidites, comprising mostly of highto low-density, wavy-laminated bioclast-rich facies; 2) low-density densite mudstones which are characterised by planar laminated and unlaminated muddominated facies; and 3) Calcidebrites which are muddy or hyper-concentrated debrisflow deposits occurring as poorly-sorted, chaotic, mud-supported floatstones. These

9,929 citations

01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The principles of fluorescence spectroscopy is universally compatible with any devices to read and is available in the digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly.
Abstract: Thank you very much for downloading principles of fluorescence spectroscopy. As you may know, people have look hundreds times for their favorite novels like this principles of fluorescence spectroscopy, but end up in malicious downloads. Rather than reading a good book with a cup of tea in the afternoon, instead they cope with some harmful bugs inside their desktop computer. principles of fluorescence spectroscopy is available in our digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly. Our digital library spans in multiple locations, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Kindly say, the principles of fluorescence spectroscopy is universally compatible with any devices to read.

2,960 citations

01 Sep 1955
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors restrict their attention to the ferrites and a few other closely related materials, which are more closely related to anti-ferromagnetic substances than they are to ferromagnetics in which the magnetization results from the parallel alignment of all the magnetic moments present.
Abstract: In this chapter, we will restrict our attention to the ferrites and a few other closely related materials. The great interest in ferrites stems from their unique combination of a spontaneous magnetization and a high electrical resistivity. The observed magnetization results from the difference in the magnetizations of two non-equivalent sub-lattices of the magnetic ions in the crystal structure. Materials of this type should strictly be designated as “ferrimagnetic” and in some respects are more closely related to anti-ferromagnetic substances than they are to ferromagnetics in which the magnetization results from the parallel alignment of all the magnetic moments present. We shall not adhere to this special nomenclature except to emphasize effects, which are due to the existence of the sub-lattices.

2,659 citations

01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the principles of optics electromagnetic theory of propagation interference and diffraction of light, which can be used to find a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon, instead of facing with some infectious bugs inside their computer.
Abstract: Thank you for reading principles of optics electromagnetic theory of propagation interference and diffraction of light. As you may know, people have search hundreds times for their favorite novels like this principles of optics electromagnetic theory of propagation interference and diffraction of light, but end up in harmful downloads. Rather than enjoying a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon, instead they are facing with some infectious bugs inside their computer.

2,213 citations

01 Jan 2016

1,664 citations