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Rajib Dasgupta

Bio: Rajib Dasgupta is an academic researcher from Jawaharlal Nehru University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Public health & Population. The author has an hindex of 16, co-authored 71 publications receiving 745 citations. Previous affiliations of Rajib Dasgupta include Philippine Institute for Development Studies & University of Calcutta.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The pooled estimates for prevalence increased by up to three percentage points when these were adjusted for national rates of stunting or low birth weight (LBW) and all-site-pooled estimates for NDDs were 9.2% (95% CI 7.5–11.2) in children of 2–<6 and 6–9 year age categories, respectively.
Abstract: Background Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) compromise the development and attainment of full social and economic potential at individual, family, community, and country levels. Paucity of data on NDDs slows down policy and programmatic action in most developing countries despite perceived high burden. Methods and findings We assessed 3,964 children (with almost equal number of boys and girls distributed in 2–<6 and 6–9 year age categories) identified from five geographically diverse populations in India using cluster sampling technique (probability proportionate to population size). These were from the North-Central, i.e., Palwal (N = 998; all rural, 16.4% non-Hindu, 25.3% from scheduled caste/tribe [SC-ST] [these are considered underserved communities who are eligible for affirmative action]); North, i.e., Kangra (N = 997; 91.6% rural, 3.7% non-Hindu, 25.3% SC-ST); East, i.e., Dhenkanal (N = 981; 89.8% rural, 1.2% non-Hindu, 38.0% SC-ST); South, i.e., Hyderabad (N = 495; all urban, 25.7% non-Hindu, 27.3% SC-ST) and West, i.e., North Goa (N = 493; 68.0% rural, 11.4% non-Hindu, 18.5% SC-ST). All children were assessed for vision impairment (VI), epilepsy (Epi), neuromotor impairments including cerebral palsy (NMI-CP), hearing impairment (HI), speech and language disorders, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and intellectual disability (ID). Furthermore, 6–9-year-old children were also assessed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disorders (LDs). We standardized sample characteristics as per Census of India 2011 to arrive at district level and all-sites-pooled estimates. Site-specific prevalence of any of seven NDDs in 2–<6 year olds ranged from 2.9% (95% CI 1.6–5.5) to 18.7% (95% CI 14.7–23.6), and for any of nine NDDs in the 6–9-year-old children, from 6.5% (95% CI 4.6–9.1) to 18.5% (95% CI 15.3–22.3). Two or more NDDs were present in 0.4% (95% CI 0.1–1.7) to 4.3% (95% CI 2.2–8.2) in the younger age category and 0.7% (95% CI 0.2–2.0) to 5.3% (95% CI 3.3–8.2) in the older age category. All-site-pooled estimates for NDDs were 9.2% (95% CI 7.5–11.2) and 13.6% (95% CI 11.3–16.2) in children of 2–<6 and 6–9 year age categories, respectively, without significant difference according to gender, rural/urban residence, or religion; almost one-fifth of these children had more than one NDD. The pooled estimates for prevalence increased by up to three percentage points when these were adjusted for national rates of stunting or low birth weight (LBW). HI, ID, speech and language disorders, Epi, and LDs were the common NDDs across sites. Upon risk modelling, noninstitutional delivery, history of perinatal asphyxia, neonatal illness, postnatal neurological/brain infections, stunting, LBW/prematurity, and older age category (6–9 year) were significantly associated with NDDs. The study sample was underrepresentative of stunting and LBW and had a 15.6% refusal. These factors could be contributing to underestimation of the true NDD burden in our population. Conclusions The study identifies NDDs in children aged 2–9 years as a significant public health burden for India. HI was higher than and ASD prevalence comparable to the published global literature. Most risk factors of NDDs were modifiable and amenable to public health interventions.

146 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Kumanan Rasanathan and colleagues argue that the potential of multisectoral collaboration for improving health remains untapped in many low- and middle-income countries.
Abstract: Kumanan Rasanathan and colleagues argue that the potential of multisectoral collaboration for improving health remains untapped in many low- and middle-income countries.

96 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: While the programs focus was on microbiological issues, the obstacles to polio eradication lie in the endemicity of social resistance in some pockets, leading to clustering of perpetually unimmunized children - inspite of good coverage of SIAs at macro level.
Abstract: Objective To gain an insight into the phenomenon of social resistance and rumors against pulse polio campaign Design Qualitative, community-based investigation, mapping perceptions of various stakeholders through in-depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs), non-formal interactions and observations Setting Moradabad and JP Nagar districts of Uttar Pradesh Subjects IDIs (providers 33, mothers 33, community leaders 10); FGDs (providers 4, mothers 8) and non-formal interactions (156) with community leaders, parents, businessmen, journalists (Hindi and Urdu media), mobilizers, vaccinators and supervisors Results A distinct machination of social resistance and rumors against oral polio vaccine during supplementary immunization activities (SIA) was observed in some minority dominated areas The pattern can be understood through a model that emerged through qualitative evidence Inspite of all this, most parents in minority areas supported the SIAs Only a few clusters from extremely marginalized sections continued to evade SIAs, with an endemic pattern Through social osmosis, these rumors reached majority community as well and some parents were affected However, in such cases, the resistance was sporadic and transient Conclusion While the programs focus was on microbiological issues, the obstacles to polio eradication lie in the endemicity of social (and/or cultural) resistance in some pockets, leading to clustering of perpetually unimmunized children - inspite of good coverage of SIAs at macro level This may sustain low levels of wild poliovirus transmission, and there can be exceptions to the robustness of the pulse approach A micro level involvement of volunteers from marginalized pockets of minorities might be able to minimize or eliminate this resistance

47 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Community perspectives are focused on, for indentifying key areas that require improvement for proper implementation of the Mukhya Mantri Janani Shishu Swasthya Abhiyan (MMJSSA) in Jharkhand.
Abstract: Preventing maternal death associated with pregnancy and child birth is one of the greatest challenges for India. Approximately 55,000 women die in India due to pregnancy- and childbirth- related conditions each year. Increasing the coverage of maternal and newborn interventions is essential if Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4 and 5 are to be reached. With a view to accelerate the reduction in maternal and neonatal mortality through institutional deliveries, Government of India initiated a scheme in 2005 called Janani Suraksha Yojna (JSY) under its National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). In Jharkhand the scheme is called the Mukhya Mantri Janani Shishu Swasthya Abhiyan (MMJSSA). This paper focuses on community perspectives, for indentifying key areas that require improvement for proper implementation of the MMJSSA in Jharkhand. Qualitative research method was used to collect data through in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) in six districts of Jharkhand- Gumla, West Singhbhum, Koderma, Deoghar, Garhwa, and Ranchi. Total 300 IDIs (24 IDIs each from mother given birth at home and institution respectively; two IDIs each with members of Village Health and Sanitation Committees (VHSC) / Rogi Kalyan Samitis (RKS) from each district) and 24 FGDs (four FGDs were conducted from pools of husbands, mothers-in-law and fathers-in-law in each district) were conducted. Although people indicated willingness for institutional deliveries (generally perceived to be safe deliveries), several barriers emerged as critical obstacles. These included poor infrastructure, lack of quality of care, difficulties while availing incentives, corruption in disbursement of incentives, behavior of the healthcare personnel and lack of information about MMJSSA. Poor (and expensive) transport facilities and difficult terrain made geographical access difficult. The level of utilization of maternal healthcare among women in Jharkhand is low. There was an overwhelming demand for energizing sub-centers (including for deliveries) in order to increase access to maternal and child health services. Having second ANMs will go a long way in achieving this end. The MMJSSA scheme will thus have to re-invent itself within the overall framework of the NRHM.

40 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The scientific and technical bodies spearheading the GPEI, including the WHO, UNICEF, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, have formulated a conceptually flawed strategy and it is not weak political will that is the central obstacle in this final push for global eradication.
Abstract: The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) promised eradication of polio by the year 2000 and certification of eradication by 2005. The first deadline is already a matter of history. With the reporting of polio cases in 2004, the new deadline for polio eradication by 2004 is postponed further. This article seeks to argue that the scientific and technical bodies spearheading the GPEI, including the WHO, UNICEF, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, have formulated a conceptually flawed strategy and that it is not weak political will that is the central obstacle in this final push for global eradication. The validity of the claims of “near success” by the proponents of the GPEI is also examined in detail. By taking India as a case study, the authors examine the achievements of the GPEI in nine years of intense effort since 1995. They conclude that the GPEI is yet another exercise in mismanaging the health priorities and programs in developing countries in the era of globalization.

37 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Reading a book as this basics of qualitative research grounded theory procedures and techniques and other references can enrich your life quality.

13,415 citations

Book
01 Jun 2009
TL;DR: The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) as mentioned in this paper was originally created to provide relief for children in countries devastated by the destruction of World War II, and in 1965, it was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace for its humanitarian efforts.
Abstract: The United Nations Children's Fund, or UNICEF, was originally created to provide relief for children in countries devastated by the destruction of World War II. After 1950, UNICEF turned to focus on general programs for the improvement of children's welfare worldwide, and in 1965, it was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace for its humanitarian efforts. The organization concentrates on areas in which relatively small expenditures can have a significant impact on the lives of the most disadvantaged children in developing countries, such as the prevention and treatment of disease, child healthcare, malnutrition, illiteracy, and other welfare services.

1,156 citations

01 Oct 2006

973 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines.

632 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors performed a systematic review of the prevalence of autism worldwide and found that 99 estimates from 71 studies were published indicating a global autism prevalence that ranges within and across regions, with a median prevalence of 100/10000 (range: 1.09/10,000 to 436.2%).
Abstract: Prevalence estimates of autism are essential for informing public policy, raising awareness, and developing research priorities. Using a systematic review, we synthesized estimates of the prevalence of autism worldwide. We examined factors accounting for variability in estimates and critically reviewed evidence relevant for hypotheses about biological or social determinants (viz., biological sex, sociodemographic status, ethnicity/race, and nativity) potentially modifying prevalence estimates of autism. We performed the search in November 2021 within Medline for studies estimating autism prevalence, published since our last systematic review in 2012. Data were extracted by two independent researchers. Since 2012, 99 estimates from 71 studies were published indicating a global autism prevalence that ranges within and across regions, with a median prevalence of 100/10,000 (range: 1.09/10,000 to 436.0/10,000). The median male‐to‐female ratio was 4.2. The median percentage of autism cases with co‐occurring intellectual disability was 33.0%. Estimates varied, likely reflecting complex and dynamic interactions between patterns of community awareness, service capacity, help seeking, and sociodemographic factors. A limitation of this review is that synthesizing methodological features precludes a quality appraisal of studies. Our findings reveal an increase in measured autism prevalence globally, reflecting the combined effects of multiple factors including the increase in community awareness and public health response globally, progress in case identification and definition, and an increase in community capacity. Hypotheses linking factors that increase the likelihood of developing autism with variations in prevalence will require research with large, representative samples and comparable autism diagnostic criteria and case‐finding methods in diverse world regions over time.

368 citations